The ISO 27001:2022 standard adopts a process approach for establishing, implementing, operating, monitoring, reviewing, maintaining, and improving an organization’s information security management system. ISO 27001 was established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It was first launched in 2005, as a replacement of BS 7799
What’s new in ISO 27001:2022 Compared to ISO 27001:2013?
The management system of ISO 27001:2022 will contain a few minor changes, aligning it to Annex SL.
These changes include:
- Refinement of 4.2 Interested parties. You must now identify the “relevant” requirements of interested parties and determine which will be addressed through the ISMS (information security management system).
- Refinement of 4.4 ISMS. The ISMS now explicitly includes the “processes needed and their interactions”.
- Refinement of 6.1.3 Risk treatment.There is a new section on planning changes to the ISMS. This does not specify any processes that must be included, so you should determine how you can demonstrate that changes to the ISMS have indeed been planned.
- Refinement of 6.2 Objectives. Information security objectives must now be monitored and made “available as documented information”.
- Addition of 6.3 Change management.
- Refinement of 7.4 Communication.The requirements to define who will communicate and the processes for effecting communication have been replaced by a requirement to define “how to communicate”.
- Rewrite of 8.1 Operational planning. The requirement to plan how to achieve information security objectives has been replaced by a requirement to establish criteria for processes to implement actions identified in Clause 6, and to control those processes in line with the criteria. Organisations are now required to control “externally provided processes, products or services” relevant to the ISMS rather than just processes.
- Refinement of 9.1 Monitoring. Methods of monitoring, measuring, analyzing and evaluating the effectiveness of the ISMS now need to be comparable and reproducible.
- The management review must now also consider changes in the needs and expectations of interested parties.
- Splitting 9.2 into 9.2.1 General / 9.2.2 Audit program
- Splitting 9.3 into 9.3.1 General / 9.3.2 Input / 9.3.3 Output
- 10.1 Improvement and 10.2 Non conformity have switched numbers
ISO 27001 Controls
The controls now also have five types of ‘attribute’ to make them easier to categories:
- Control type (preventive, detective, corrective)
- Information security properties (confidentiality, integrity, availability)
- Cyber security concepts (identify, protect, detect, respond, recover)
- Operational capabilities (governance, asset management, etc.)
- Security domains (governance and ecosystem, protection, defence, resilience)
The completely new controls are:
- Threat intelligence
- Information security for use of cloud services
- ICT readiness for business continuity
- Physical security monitoring
- Configuration management
- Information deletion
- Data masking
- Data leakage prevention
- Monitoring activities
- Web filtering
- Secure coding
A.5.23 Information security for use of cloud services
Description. This control requires you to set security requirements for cloud services in order to have better protection of your information in the cloud. This includes purchasing, using, managing, and terminating the use of cloud services.
Technology. In most cases, new technology will not be needed, because the majority of cloud services already have security features. In some cases, you might need to upgrade your service to a more secure one, while in some rare cases you will need to change the cloud provider if it does not have security features. For the most part, the only change required will be using existing cloud security features in a more thorough way.
Organization/processes. You should set up a process to determine security requirements for cloud services and for determining the criteria for selecting a cloud provider; further, you should define a process for determining acceptable use of the cloud, and also the security requirements when cancelling the use of a cloud service.
People. Make employees aware of the security risks of using cloud services, and train them on how to use the security features of cloud services.
Documentation. No documentation is required by ISO 27001; however, if you are a smaller company, you might include rules about cloud services in the Supplier Security Policy. Larger companies might develop a separate policy that would focus specifically on security for cloud services.
A.5.30 ICT readiness for business continuity
Description. This control requires your information and communication technology to be ready for potential disruptions so that required information and assets are available when needed. This includes readiness planning, implementation, maintenance, and testing.
Technology. If you did not invest in solutions that enable resilience and redundancy of your systems, you might need to introduce such technology – this might range from data backup to redundant communication links. These solutions need to be planned based on your risk assessment and how quickly you need your data and your systems to be recovered.
Organization/processes. Besides the planning process, which needs to take into account the risks and business needs for recovery, you should also set up the maintenance process for your technology, and the testing process for your disaster recovery and/or business continuity plans.
People. Make employees aware of potential disruptions that could happen, and train them on how to maintain IT and communication technology so that it is ready for a disruption.
Documentation. No documentation is required by ISO 27001; however, if you are a smaller company, you might include the ICT readiness in the following documents:
- Disaster Recovery Plan – readiness planning, implementation, and maintenance
- Internal Audit Report – readiness testing
If you are a larger organization, or if you implemented ISO 22301, then you should document readiness through the Business Impact Analysis, Business Continuity Strategy, Business Continuity Plan, and Business Continuity Testing Plan & Report.
A.7.4 Physical security monitoring
Description. This control requires you to monitor sensitive areas in order to enable only authorized people to access them. This might include your offices, production facilities, warehouses, and other premises.
Technology. Depending on your risks, you might need to implement alarm systems or video monitoring; you might also decide to implement a non-tech solution like a person observing the area (e.g., a guard).
Organization/processes. You should define who is in charge of the monitoring of sensitive areas, and what communication channels to use to report an incident.
People. Make employees aware of the risks of unauthorized physical entry into sensitive areas, and train them how to use the monitoring technology.
Documentation. No documentation is required by ISO 27001; however, you might include physical security monitoring in the following documents:
- Procedures that Regulate Physical Security – what is monitored, and who is in charge of monitoring
- Incident Management Procedure – how to report and handle a physical security incident
A.8.9 Configuration management
Description. This control requires you to manage the whole cycle of security configuration for your technology to ensure a proper level of security and to avoid any unauthorized changes. This includes configuration definition, implementation, monitoring, and review.
Technology. The technology whose configuration needs to be managed could include software, hardware, services, or networks. Smaller companies will probably be able to handle configuration management without any additional tools, whereas larger companies probably need some software that enforces defined configurations.
Organization/processes. You should set up a process for proposing, reviewing, and approving security configurations, as well as the processes for managing and monitoring the configurations.
People. Make employees aware of why strict control of security configuration is needed, and train them on how to define and implement security configurations.
Documentation. ISO 27001 requires this control to be documented. If you are a small company, you can document the configuration rules in your Security Operating Procedures. Larger companies will typically have a separate procedure that defines the configuration process. You will usually have separate specifications that define security configurations for each of your systems, in order to avoid frequent updates of the documents mentioned in the previous paragraph. Further, all changes to configurations need to be logged to enable an audit trail.
A.8.10 Information deletion
Description. This control requires you to delete data when no longer required, in order to avoid leakage of sensitive information and to enable compliance with privacy and other requirements. This could include deletion in your IT systems, removable media, or cloud services.
Technology. You should be using tools for secure deletion, according to regulatory or contractual requirements, or in line with your risk assessment.
Organization/processes. You should set up a process that will define which data need to be deleted and when, and define responsibilities and methods for deletion.
People. Make employees aware of why deleting sensitive information is important, and train them on how to do this properly.
Documentation. No documentation is required by ISO 27001; however, you might include rules about information deletion in the following documents:
- Disposal and Destruction Policy – how the information on removable media is deleted
- Acceptable Use Policy – how regular users need to delete the sensitive information on their computers and mobile devices
- Security Operating Procedures – how system administrators need to delete the sensitive information on servers and networks
Larger organizations might also have a Data Retention Policy that defines how long each type of information is needed, and when it needs to be deleted.
A.8.11 Data masking
Description. This control requires you to use data masking together with access control in order to limit the exposure of sensitive information. This primarily means personal data, because they are heavily regulated through privacy regulations, but it could also include other categories of sensitive data.
Technology. Companies can use tools for pseudonymization or anonymization in order to mask data if this is required by privacy or other regulations. Other methods like encryption or obfuscation can also be used.
Organization/processes. You should set up processes that will determine which data need to be masked, who can access which type of data, and which methods will be used to mask the data.
People. Make employees aware of why masking data is important, and train them on which data need to be masked and how.
Documentation. No documentation is required by ISO 27001; however, you might include rules on data masking in the following documents:
- Information Classification Policy – determine which data are sensitive and what categories of data need to be masked
- Access Control Policy – defines who can access what type of masked or unmasked data
- Secure Development Policy – defines the technology of masking the data
Larger companies, or companies that need to be compliant with the Data Protection Regulation of their country of operation and similar privacy regulations, should also have the following documents:
- Anonymization and Pseudonymization Policy – details on how data masking is implemented in the context of a privacy regulation
A.8.12 Data leakage prevention
Description. This control requires you to apply various data leakage measures in order to avoid unauthorized disclosure of sensitive information, and if such incidents happen, to detect them in a timely manner. This includes information in IT systems, networks, or any devices.
Technology. For this purpose, you could use systems to monitor potential leakage channels, including emails, removable storage devices, mobile devices, etc., and systems that prevent information from leaking – e.g., disabling download to removable storage, email quarantine, restricting copy and paste of data, restricting upload of data to external systems, encryption, etc.
Organization/processes. You should set up processes that determine the sensitivity of data, assess the risks of various technologies (e.g., risks of taking photos of sensitive information with a smartphone), monitor channels with the potential of data leakage, and define which technology to use to block the exposure of sensitive data.
People. Make employees aware of what kind of sensitive data is handled in the company and why it is important to prevent leakages, and train them on what is and what isn’t allowed when handling sensitive data.
Documentation. No documentation is required by ISO 27001; however, you might include rules on data leakage prevention in the following documents:
- Information Classification Policy – the more sensitive the data are, the more prevention needs to be applied
- Security Operating Procedures – which systems for monitoring and prevention should be used by administrators
- Policy on Acceptable Use – what is and what isn’t allowed for regular users
A.8.16 Monitoring activities
Description. This control requires you to monitor your systems in order to recognize unusual activities and, if needed, to activate the appropriate incident response. This includes monitoring of your IT systems, networks, and applications.
Technology. For your networks, systems, and applications, you could monitor the following: security tool logs, event logs, who is accessing what, activities of your main administrators, inbound and outbound traffic, proper execution of the code, and how the system resources are performing.
Organization/processes. You should set up a process that defines which systems will be monitored; how the responsibilities for monitoring are determined; and the methods of monitoring, establishing a baseline for unusual activities, and reporting events and incidents.
People. Make employees aware that their activities will be monitored, and explain what is and what is not considered normal behavior. Train IT administrators to use monitoring tools.
Documentation. No documentation is required by ISO 27001; however, if you are a smaller company, you might include rules about monitoring in the Security Operating Procedures. Larger companies might develop a separate procedure that would describe how to monitor their systems. On top of this, it would be useful to keep records of monitoring activities.
A.8.23 Web filtering
Description. This control requires you to manage which websites your users are accessing, in order to protect your IT systems. This way, you can prevent your systems from being compromised by malicious code, and also prevent users from using illegal materials from the Internet.
Technology. You could use tools that block access to particular IP addresses, which could include the usage of anti-malware software. You could also use non-tech methods like developing a list of forbidden websites and asking users not to visit them.
Organization/processes. You should set up processes that determine which types of websites are not allowed, and how the web filtering tools are maintained.
People. Make employees aware of the dangers of using the Internet and where to find guidelines for safe use, and train your system administrators on how to perform web filtering.
Documentation. No documentation is required by ISO 27001; however if you are a smaller company, you might include rules about web filtering in the following documents:
- Security Operating Procedures – Define rules for system administrators on how to implement web filtering.
- Acceptable Use Policy – Define rules for all users on what is acceptable usage of Internet.
Larger companies might develop a separate procedure that would describe how the web filtering is performed.
A.8.28 Secure coding
Description. This control requires you to establish secure coding principles and apply them to your software development in order to reduce security vulnerabilities in the software. This could include activities before, during, and after the coding.
Technology. You might be using tools for maintaining an inventory of libraries, for protecting the source code from tampering, for logging errors and attacks, and for testing; you could also use security components like authentication, encryption, etc.
Organization/processes. You should set up a process for defining the minimum baseline of secure coding – both for internal software development and for software components from third parties, a process for monitoring emerging threats and advice on secure coding, a process for deciding which external tools and libraries can be used, and a process that defines activities done before the coding, during the coding, after the coding (review and maintenance), and for software modification.
People. Make your software developers aware of the importance of using secure coding principles, and train them on methods and tools for secure coding.
Documentation. No documentation is required by ISO 27001; however if you are a smaller company, you might include rules about secure coding in the Secure Development Policy. Larger companies might develop separate procedures for secure coding for each of their software development projects.
Protecting your assets
The standard takes a comprehensive approach to information security. Assets that need protection range from digital information, paper documents, and physical assets (computers and networks) to the knowledge of individual employees. Issues you have to address range from competence development of staff to technical protection against computer fraud.
ISO 27001 will help you protect your information in terms of the following principles:
- Confidentiality ensures that information is accessible only to those authorized to have access.
- Integrity safeguards the accuracy and completeness of information and processing methods.
- Availability ensures that authorized users have access to information and associated assets when required.
ISO/IEC 27001 requires that management:
- Systematically examine the organization’s information security risks, taking account of the threats, vulnerabilities, and impacts;
- Design and implement a coherent and comprehensive suite of information security controls and/or other forms of risk treatment (such as risk avoidance or risk transfer) to address those risks that are deemed unacceptable; and
- Adopt an overarching management process to ensure that the information security controls continue to meet the organization’s information security needs on an ongoing basis.
ISO/IEC 27001:2022 is intended to be suitable for several different types of use, including the following:
- Use within organizations to formulate security requirements and objectives;
- use within organizations as a way to ensure that security risks are cost effectively managed;
- use within organizations to ensure compliance with laws and regulations;
- use within an organization as a process framework for the implementation and management of controls to ensure that the specific security objectives of an organization are met;
- definition of new information security management processes;
- identification and clarification of existing information security management processes;
- use by the management of organizations to determine the status of information security management activities;
- use by the internal and external auditors of organizations to determine the degree of compliance with the policies, directives, and standards adopted by an organization;
- use by organizations to provide relevant information about information security policies, directives, standards and procedures to trading partners and other organizations with whom they interact for operational or commercial reasons;
- implementation of business-enabling information security;
- use by organizations to provide relevant information about information security to customers.
Benefits of ISO 27001:2022
The benefits of standardization, and of implementation of one or more of the ISO 27000 series are wide and varied. Although they tend to differ from organization to organization, many are common.
The following is a list of potential benefits. As with many items on this website, this is an ongoing project. Please feel free to add further points via the comments option below.
This is a general benefit of standardization. The idea is that systems from diverse parties are more likely to fit together if they follow a common guideline.
Management can be assured of the quality of a system, business unit, or other entity if a recognized framework or approach is followed.
Compliance with, or certification against, and international standard is often used by management to demonstrate due diligence.
Organizations often use a standard as a measure of their status within their peer community. It can be used as a benchmark for current position and progress.
Implementation of a standard such as ISO 27001 can often result in greater security awareness within an organization.
Because implementation of ISO 27001 (and the other ISO 27000 standards) tends to involve both business management and technical staff, greater IT and Business alignment often result.
It might seem odd to list this as the first benefit, but it often shows the quickest “return on investment” – if an organization must comply to various regulations regarding data protection, privacy and IT governance (particularly if it is a financial, health or government organization), then ISO 27001 can bring in the methodology which enables to do it in the most efficient way.
In a market which is more and more competitive, it is sometimes very difficult to find something that will differentiate you in the eyes of your customers. ISO 27001 could be indeed a unique selling point, especially if you handle clients’ sensitive information.
Lowering the expenses
Information security is usually considered as a cost with no obvious financial gain. However, there is a financial gain if you lower your expenses caused by incidents. You probably do have an interruption in service, or occasional data leakage, or disgruntled employees. Or disgruntled former employees.
The truth is, there is still no methodology and/or technology to calculate how much money you could save if you prevented such incidents. But it always sounds good if you bring such cases to management’s attention.
Putting your business in order
This one is probably the most underrated – if you are a company which has been growing sharply for the last few years, you might experience problems like – who has to decide what, who is responsible for certain information assets, who has to authorize access to information systems, etc.
How to achieve ISO 27001 certification – ISO 27001 implementation / Certification steps
what I offer is a well defined and globally proven implementation methodology for ISO 27001-2013 certification.
- Gap Analysis
- Awareness Training
- Risk analysis
- Documentation Design and finalization
- Internal Auditor Training and conduct of the internal audit
- Management Review Meeting
- Review of Implementation
- Pre-assessment audit
- Stage 1 – certification audit
- Stage 2 – certification audit
- Award of ISO 27001 certification
- Continual improvement of the system through value-added consulting and training services
Domains of ISO/IEC – 27001
- Security policy
- Organization of information security
- Asset management
- Human resources security
- Physical and environmental security
- Communications and operations management
- Access control
- Information systems acquisition, development, and maintenance
- Information security incident management
- Business continuity management
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