Project Management Functions and Sub functions

Let us first understand a few common Project Management Terminology:

•A Project is a group of multiple interdependent activities that require people and resources. It has a defined start and end date and a specific set of criteria that define successful completion.

•The goal is what exactly needs to be accomplished.

•The Project Scope is the documented set of standards and criteria that the customer defines as successful completion.

•An objective is a combination of tasks that concern specific functional groups or structural areas.

•A task is a combination of activities that lead to the achievement of a definable result.

•An activity is a time-consuming piece of work with a definite beginning and an end.

Duration is the elapsed time from the beginning to the end of an activity, task, or objective.

Luther Gullick  gave the Keyword:


O…………………. Organizing


•S…………………. Staffing

Co………………. Coordinating




1. Planning


• Decision making

•Strategy formulation/ policymaking




• Problem  Solving           

•Innovation, Investigation and Research

2. Organizing


•Divisionalisation departments,

• Decentralisation


• Span of  Management

• Task Allocation


•Manpower planning,

•Recruitment selection

•Training placement                  




4.Directing/ Leading





5. Controlling

•Fixation of standards




•Corrective action


•Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done in the future

–“what” is going to be done, “how”, “where”, by “whom”, and “when”

–For effective monitoring and control of projects

•Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it and who is to do it. Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to go. It makes it possible for things to occur which would not otherwise  happen

Features of planning

•Planning seeks to achieve certain objectives.

•Planning is oriented towards the future.

•Planning is a mental exercise

•Planning involves choices from alternatives

•Planning is the basics for all other functions.

•It is a continuous function

•It is pervading.

•Planning is directed towards efficiency.

Steps in planning

•Collecting information about past

•Defining objectives

•Developing planning premises

•Discovering alternative courses of action.

•Evaluating alternatives.

•Choosing the best alternatives

•Defining subsidiary plans

•Periodic revision and review of plans.

Advantages of planning

•It focuses attention on desired objectives

•It helps to minimize risk

•It improve efficiency

•It avoid confusions

•It encourage innovation and creativity

•It enables co operation and group work

•It serves as the basis of control.

Scheduling“Its about time”

–“What” will be done, and “Who” will be working relative timing of tasks & time frames.

–A concise description of the plan

“Once you plan your work, you must work your plan”

•Planning and Scheduling occurs:

AFTER  you have decided how to do the work

•“The first idea is not always the best idea.”

•Requires discipline to “work the plan”

–The act of development useful,

–But need to monitor and track

Popular Scheduling Techniques

•Bar chart

•Gantt chart



•Precedence Network

•MSP software

•Primavera (P6) software


•According to Henri fayol “To organise a business means to provide it with everything useful to its functioning-raw materials, tools,capital and personnel”.

Steps in Organizing

•Identifying the activities required for achieving objectives.

•Classifying these activities in to convenient groups

•Assigning the group of activities to appropriate persons.

•Delegating authority and fixing responsibilities.

•Coordinating Authority Responsibility relationship throughout the enterprise.

Importance of organizing

•Sound organization facilitate growth and diversification

•Optimum use of human resources by matching work with talent

•Maintain good harmonious structure in the office

•Group activity is equivalent to social structure of organization

•It is a mechanism of management to direct ,controls and coordinates the activities of enterprise.


•The managerial functions of staffing involves manning the organizational structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal and development of personnel to fill the roles designed in to the structure.

•It is concerned with the Human resources of the enterprise.

•It is concerned with  acquiring,developing,utilising,and maintaining human resources.

•It is a process of matching jobs with individuals to ensure right man for the right job.

Steps in staffing

•Manpower planning

•Recruitment, Selection, Placement

•Training and Development

•Appraisal,Promotion and Transfer

•Employee remuneration

Importance of Staffing

•It helps in discovering and obtaining competent employees for various job.

•It improves the quantity and quality of output by putting right man for right job.

•It improves job satisfaction of employees

•It reduces cost of personnel by avoiding wastage of human resource.

•It facilitates the growth and diversification.


•It is concerned with the execution of plans through organized action.

•It is also known as commanding or actuating.

•Direction consist of the process and techniques utilized in using instructions and making certain that operations are carried out as planned.

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