Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) defines generic requirements for production part approval, including production and bulk materials. The purpose of PPAP is to determine if all customer engineering design record and specification requirements are properly understood by the organization and that the manufacturing process has the potential to produce product consistently meeting these requirements during an actual production run at the quoted production rates.
PPAP shall apply to internal and external organization sites supplying production parts, service parts, production materials, or bulk materials. For bulk materials, PPAP is not required unless speciﬁed by the authorized customer representative. An organization supplying standard catalog production or service parts shall comply with PPAP unless formally waived by the authorized customer representative.
NOTE: See customer-speciﬁc requirements for additional information. All questions about PPAP
should be addressed to the authorized customer representative. A customer can formally waive PPAP requirements for an organization. Such waivers can only be issued by an authorized customer representative. An organization or supplier requesting a waiver of a PPAP requirement should contact the authorized customer representative. The organization or supplier should obtain documentation of waivers from the authorized customer representative. Catalog parts (e.g., bolts) are identiﬁed and/or ordered by functional speciﬁcations or by recognized industry standards.
Section 1: General
Submission of PPAP
The organization shall obtain approval from the authorized customer representative for:
- a new part or product (e.g., a speciﬁc part, material, or color not previously supplied to the
- correction of a discrepancy on a previously submitted part.
- product modiﬁed by an engineering change to design records, speciﬁcations, or materials
NOTE: If there is any question concerning the need for production part approval, contact the authorized customer representative.
Section 2 — PPAP Process Requirements
2.1 Significant Production Run
For production parts, product for PPAP shall be taken from a signiﬁcant production run. This signiﬁcant production run shall be from one hour to eight hours of production, and with the speciﬁc production quantity to total a minimum of 300 consecutive parts, unless otherwise speciﬁed by the authorized customer representative. This signiﬁcant production run shall be conducted at the production site, at the production rate using the production tooling, production gaging, production process, production materials, and production operators. Parts from each unique production process, e.g., duplicate assembly line and/or Work. cell, each position of a multiple cavity die, mold, tool or pattern, shall be measured and representative parts tested.
For Bulk materials: No speciﬁc number of “parts” is required. The submitted sample shall be taken in a manner as to assure that it represents “steady-state” operation of the process.
NOTE: For bulk material, production histories of current products may often be used to estimate the initial process capability or performance of new and similar products. In cases where no production history of a similar bulk material product or technology exists, a containment plan may be put into effect until sufﬁcient production has demonstrated capability or performance, unless otherwise speciﬁed by the customer.
2.2 PPAP Requirements
The organization shall meet all speciﬁed PPAP requirements listed below and also meet all customer-speciﬁc PPAP requirements. Production parts shall meet all customer engineering design record and speciﬁcation requirements including safety and regulatory requirements. Bulk Material PPAP requirements are deﬁned by a completed Bulk Material Requirements Checklist . If any part speciﬁcations cannot be met, the organization shall document their problem-solving efforts and shall contact the authorized customer representative for concurrence in determination of appropriate corrective action.
NOTE: Items or records may not necessarily apply to every customer part number from every organization. For example, some parts do not have appearance requirements, others do not have color requirements, and plastic parts may have polymeric part marking requirements. In order to determine with certainty which items must be included, consult the design record, e.g., part print, the relevant Engineering documents or speciﬁcations, and your authorized customer representative.
1. Design Record
The organization shall have the design record for the saleable product/part, including design records for components or details of the saleable product/part. Where the design record is in electronic format, e.g., CAD/CAM math data, the organization shall produce a hard copy (e. g., pictorial, geometric dimensioning & tolerancing [GD&T] sheets, drawing) to identity measurements taken.
NOTE : For any saleable product, part or component, there will only be one design record, regardless of who has design—responsibility. The design record may reference other documents making them part of the design record. A single design record can represent multiple part or assembly conﬁgurations, e. g., a sub-frame assembly with various hole configurations for different applications. For parts identiﬁed as black box , the design record speciﬁes the interface and performance requirements. For parts identified as catalog parts, the design record may consist only of a functional speciﬁcation or a reference to a recognized industry standard. For bulk materials, the design record may include identiﬁcation of raw materials, formulations, processing steps and parameters, and ﬁnal product specifications or acceptance criteria. If dimensional results do not apply, then CAD/CAM requirements are also not applicable.
a) Reporting of Part Material Composition
The organization shall provide evidence that the Material/Substance Composition reporting that is required by the customer has been completed for the part and that the reported data complies with all customer—speciﬁc requirements
NOTE: This materials reporting may be entered into the IMDS (International Materials Data System) or – other customer-speciﬁed system/method. IMDS is available through http://www.mdsystem.com/index.jsp.
b) Marking of Polymeric Parts
Where applicable, the organization shall identify polymeric parts with the ISO symbols such as speciﬁed in ISO 11469, “Plastics-Generic Identiﬁcation and marking of plastic products” and/or ISO 1629, “Rubber and lattices-Nomenclature.” The following weight criteria shall determine if the marking requirement is applicable:
- Plastic parts weighing at least 100g (using ISO 11469/1043-1)
- Elastomeric parts weighing at least 200g (using ISO 11469/ 1629)
NOTE: Nomenclature and abbreviation references to support the use of ISO 11469 are contained in ISO 1043-1 for basic polymers and in ISO 1043-2 for ﬁllers and reinforcements.
2. Authorized Engineering Change documents
The organization shall have any authorized engineering change documents for those changes not yet recorded in the design record but incorporated in the product, part or tooling.
3 Customer Engineering Approval
Where speciﬁed by the customer, the organization shall have evidence of customer engineering approval.
NOTE: For bulk materials, this requirement is satisﬁed by a signed ‘Engineering Approval” line item on the Bulk Material Requirements Checklist and/or inclusion on a customer maintained list
of approved materials.
4 Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (Design FMEA)- if the organization is product design-responsible
The product design-responsible organization shall develop a Design FMEA in accordance with, and compliant to, customer-speciﬁed requirements (e.g., Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis reference manual).
NOTE : A single Design FMEA may be applied to a family of similar parts or materials.
5 Process Flow Diagram
The organization shall have a process ﬂow diagram in an organization—speciﬁed format that clearly describes the production process steps and sequence, as appropriate, and meets the speciﬁed customer needs, requirements and expectations (e.g., Advanced Product Quality Planning and Control Plan reference manual). For bulk materials, an equivalent to a Process Flow Diagram is a Process Flow Description.
NOTE: Process flow diagrams for ‘families’ of similar parts are acceptable if the new parts have been reviewed for commonality by the organization.
6 Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (Process FMEA)
The organization shall develop a Process FMEA in accordance with, and compliant to, customer-speciﬁed requirements, (e.g., Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis reference manual).
NOTE : A single Process FMEA may be applied to a process manufacturing a family of similar parts or materials if reviewed for commonality by the organization.
7 Control Plan
The organization shall have a Control Plan that deﬁnes all methods used for process control and complies with customer-speciﬁed requirements (e.g., Advanced Product Quality Planning and Control Plan reference manual).
NOTE : Control Plans for “families” of parts are acceptable if the new parts have been reviewed for commonality by the organization. Control Plan approval may be required by certain customers.
8 Measurement System Analysis Studies
The organization shall have applicable Measurement System Analysis studies, e.g., gage R&R, bias, linearity, stability, for all new or modified gages, measurement, and test equipment.
NOTE : Gage R&R acceptability criteria are deﬁned in the Measurement Systems Analysis reference manual. For bulk materials, Measurement System Analysis may not apply. Customer agreement should be obtained on actual requirements.
9 Dimensional Results
The organization shall provide evidence that dimensional verification required by the design record and the Control Plan have been completed and results indicate compliance with speciﬁed requirements. The organization shall have dimensional results for each unique manufacturing process, e.g., cells or production lines and all cavities, molds, patterns or dies . The organization shall record, with the actual results: all dimensions (except reference dimensions), characteristics, and speciﬁcations as noted on the design record and Control Plan. The organization shall. indicate the date of the design record, change level, and any authorized engineering change document not yet incorporated in the design record to which the part was made. The organization shall record the change level, drawing date, organization name and part number-on all auxiliary documents (e.g., supplementary layout results sheets, sketches, tracings, cross sections, CMM inspection point results, geometric dimensioning and tolerancing sheets, or other auxiliary drawings used in conjunction with the part drawing). Copies of these auxiliary materials shall accompany the dimensional results according to the Retention] Submission Requirements Table. A tracing shall be included when an optical comparator is necessary for inspection. The organization shall identify one of the parts measured as the master sample.
NOTE: The Dimensional Results form , a pictorial, geometric dimensioning & tolerancing [GD&T] sheets, or a checked print Where the results are legibly written on a part drawing including cross-sections, tracings, or sketches as applicable may be utilized for this purpose. Dimensional results typically do not apply to bulk materials.
10 Records of Material / Performance Test Results
The organization shall have records of material and/or performance test results for tests speciﬁed on the design record or Control Plan.
Material Test Results
The organization shall perform tests for all parts and product materials when chemical, physical, or metallurgical requirements are specified by the design record or Control Plan. Material test results shall indicate and include:
- the design record change level of the parts tested;
- any authorized engineering change documents that have not yet been incorporated in the
- design record;
- the number, date, and change level of the speciﬁcations to which the part was tested;
- the date on which the testing took place;
- the quantity tested;
- the actual results; .
- the material supplier’s name and, when required by the customer, the customer—assigned supplier/vendor code.
NOTE: Material test results may be presented in any convenient format.
For products with customer-developed material speciﬁcations and a customer-approved supplier list, the organization shall procure materials and/or services (e.g., painting, plating, heat-treating, welding) from suppliers on that list.
Performance Test Results
The organization shall perform tests for all part(s) or product material(s) when performance or functional requirements are specified by the design record or Control Plan. Performance test results shall indicate and include:
- the design record change level of the parts tested;
- any authorized engineering change documents that have not yet been incorporated in the design record;
- the number, date, and change level of the speciﬁcations to which the part was tested;
- the date on which the testing took place;
- the quantity tested;
- the actual results.
NOTE: Performance test results may be presented in any convenient format.
11. Initial Process Studies
The level of initial process capability or performance shall be determined to be acceptable prior to submission for all Special Characteristics designated by the customer or organization. The Organization shall obtain customer concurrence on the index for estimating initial process _ capability prior to submission. The organization shall perform measurement system analysis to understand how measurement error affects the study measurements.
NOTE : Where no special characteristics have been identiﬁed, the customer reserves the right to require demonstration of initial process capability on other characteristics. The purpose of this requirement is to determine if the production process is likely to produce product that will meet the customer’s requirements. The initial process study is focused on variables not. attribute data. Assembly errors, test failures, surface defects are examples of attribute data, which is important to understand, but is not covered in this initial study. To understand the performance of characteristics monitored by attribute data will require more data collected over time. Unless approved by the authorized customer representative, attribute data are not acceptable for PPAP submissions. Cpk and Ppk are described below. Other methods more appropriate for certain processes or products may be substituted with prior approval from an authorized customer representative. Initial process studies are short-term and will not predict the effects of time and variation in people, materials, methods, equipment, measurement systems, and environment. Even for these short-term studies, it is important to collect and analyze the data in the order produced using control charts. For those characteristics that can be studied using X-bar and R charts, a short-term study should be based on a minimum of 25 subgroups containing at least 100 readings from consecutive parts of the significant production run. The initial process study data requirements may be replaced by longer-term historical data from the same or similar processes, with customer concurrence. For certain processes, alternative analytical tools such as individual and moving range charts may be appropriate and permitted with prior approval from an authorized customer representative.
b) Quality Indices
Initial process studies shall be summarized with capability or performance indices, if applicable.
NOTE: The initial process study results are dependent on the purpose of the study, method of data acquisition, sampling, amount of data, demonstration of statistical control, etc.For guidance on items listed below, contact the authorized customer representative.
Cpk– The capability index for a stable process. The estimate of sigma is based on within subgroup
variation (R-bar/d2 or S-bar/c4). Cpk an indicator of process capability based on process variation within each subgroup of a set of data. Cpk, does not include the effect of process variability between the subgroups. Cpk is an indicator of how good a process could be if all process variation between subgroups was to be eliminated. Therefore, use of Cpk alone may be an incomplete indicator of process performance.
Ppk– The performance index. The estimate of sigma is based on total variation (all of individual sample data using the standard deviation [root mean square equation], “s”). Ppk is an indicator of process performance based on process variation throughout the full set of data. Unlike Cpk, Ppk is not limited to the variation within subgroups. However, Ppk cannot isolate within subgroup variation from between subgroup variation. When calculated from the same data set, Cpk and Ppk can be compared to analyze the sources of process variation.
Initial Process Studies. The purpose of the initial process study is to understand the process variation, not just to achieve a specific index value. When historical data are available or enough initial data exist to plot a control chart (at least 100 individual samples), Cpk can be calculated when the process is stable. Otherwise, for processes with known and predictable special causes and output meeting specifications, Ppk should be used. When not enough data are available (< 100 samples) or there are unknown sources of variation, contact the authorized customer representative to develop a suitable plan.
For Initial Process Studies involving more than one process stream, additional appropriate statistical methods or approaches may be required. For bulk material, the organization should obtain customer agreement regarding the appropriate techniques for initial process studies, if required, in order to determine an effective estimate of capability.
c) Acceptance Criteria for Initial Study
The organization shall use the following as acceptance criteria for evaluating initial process study results for processes that appear stable.
|Index > 1.67||The process currently meets the acceptance criteria.|
|1.33 3≤ Index≤ 1.67||The process may be acceptable. Contact the authorized|
customer representative for a review of the study results.
|Index < 1.33||The process does not currently meet the acceptance criteria.|
Contact the authorized customer representative for a review of
the study results.
NOTE : Meeting the initial process study capability acceptance criteria is one of a number of customer requirements that leads to an approved PPAP submission.
d) Unstable Processes
Depending on the nature of the instability, an unstable process may not meet customer requirements. The organization shall identify, evaluate and, wherever possible, eliminate special causes of variation prior to PPAP submission. The organization shall notify the authorized customer representative of any unstable processes that exist and shall submit a corrective action plan to the customer prior to any submission.
NOTE: For bulk materials, for processes with known and predictable special causes and output meeting speciﬁcations, corrective action plans may not be required by the customer.
e) Processes With One-Sided Speciﬁcations or Non-Normal Distributions
The organization shall determine with the authorized customer representative alternative acceptance criteria for processes with one-sided speciﬁcations or non-normal distributions.
NOTE: The above mentioned acceptance criteria assume normality and a two-sided Speciﬁcation (target in the center). When this is not true, using this analysis may result in unreliable information. These alternate acceptance criteria could require a different type of index or some method of transformation of the data. The focus should be on understanding the reasons for the non-normality (e. g., is it stable over time?) and managing variation.
f) Actions To Be Taken When Acceptance Criteria Are Not Satisﬁed
The organization shall contact the authorized customer representative if the acceptance criteria cannot be attained by the required PPAP submission date. The organization shall submit to the authorized customer representative for approval a corrective action plan and a modiﬁed Control Plan normally providing for 100% inspection. Variation reduction efforts shall continue until the acceptance criteria are met, or until customer approval is received.
NOTE : 100% inspection methodologies are subject to review and concurrence by the customer. For bulk materials, 100% inspection means an evaluation of a sample(s) of product from a continuous process or homogeneous batch which is representative of the entire production run.
12 Qualiﬁed Laboratory Documentation
Inspection and testing for PPAP shall be performed by a qualiﬁed laboratory as deﬁned by customer requirements (e.g., an accredited laboratory). The qualiﬁed laboratory (internal or external to the organization) shall have a laboratory scope and documentation showing that the laboratory is qualiﬁed for the type of measurements or tests conducted. When an external/commercial laboratory is used, the organization shall submit the test results on the laboratory letterhead or the normal laboratory report format. The name of the laboratory that performed the tests, the date of the tests, and the standards used to run the tests shall be identiﬁed.
13 Appearance Approval Report (AAR)
A separate Appearance Approval Report (AAR) shall be completed for each part or series of parts if the product/part has appearance requirements on the design record. Upon satisfactory completion of all required criteria, the organization shall record the required information on the AAR. The completed AAR and representative production products/parts shall be submitted to the location speciﬁed by the customer to receive disposition. AARs (complete with part disposition and authorized customer representative signature) shall then accompany the PSW at the time of ﬁnal submission based upon the submission level requested. See customer-speciﬁc requirements for any additional requirements.
NOTE: AAR typically applies only for parts with color, grain, or surface appearance requirements. Certain customers may not require entries in all AAR ﬁelds.
14 Sample Production Parts
The organization shall provide sample product as speciﬁed by the customer.
15 Master Sample
The organization shall retain a master sample for the same period as the production part approval records, or a) until a new master sample is produced for the same customer part number for customer approval, or b) where a master sample is required by the design record, Control Plan or inspection criteria, as a reference or standard. The master sample shall be identiﬁed as such, and shall show the customer approval date on the sample. The organization shall retain a master sample for each position of a multiple cavity die, mold, tool or pattern, or production process unless otherwise speciﬁed by the customer.
NOTE: When part size, sheer volume of parts, etc. makes storage of a master sample difﬁcult, the
sample retention requirements may be modiﬁed or waived in writing by the authorized customer
representative. The purpose of the master sample is to assist in deﬁning the production standard, especially where data is ambiguous or in insufﬁcient detail to fully replicate the part to its original approved state. Many bulk material properties are by their nature time dependent, and if a master sample is required, it may consist of the manufacturing record, test results, and certiﬁcate of analysis of key ingredients, for the approved submission sample.
16 Checking Aids
If requested by the customer, the organization shall submit with the PPAP submission any part-speciﬁc assembly or component checking aid. The organization shall certify that all aspects of the checking aid agree with part dimensional requirements. The organization shall document all released engineering design changes that have been incorporated in the checking aid at the time of submission. The organization shall provide for preventive maintenance of any checking aids for the life of the part . Measurement system analysis studies, e. g., gage R & R, accuracy, bias, linearity, stability studies, shall be conducted in compliance with customer requirements.
NOTE: Checking aids can include ﬁxtures, variable and attribute gages, models, templates, mylars
speciﬁc to the product being submitted. Checking aids, etc. typically do not apply to Bulk Materials. If checking aids are used for bulk materials, the organization should contact the authorized customer representative regarding this requirement.
17 Customer-Speciﬁc Requirements
The organization shall have records of compliance to all applicable customer-speciﬁc requirements. For bulk materials, applicable customer-speciﬁc requirements shall be documented on the Bulk Material Requirements Checklist.
18 Part Submission Warrant (PSW)
Upon completion of all PPAP requirements, the organization shall complete the Part Submission Warrant (PSW). A separate PSW shall be completed for each customer part number unless otherwise agreed to by the authorized customer representative. If production parts will be produced from more than one cavity, mold, tool, die, pattern, or production process, e. g., line or cell, the organization shall complete a dimensional evaluation on one part from each. The speciﬁc cavities, molds, line, etc., shall then be identiﬁed in the “Mold/Cavity/Production Process” line on a PSW, or in a PSW attachment. The organization shall verify that all of the measurement and test results show conformance with customer requirements and that all required documentation is available and, for Level 2, 3, and 4, is included in the submission as appropriate. A responsible ofﬁcial of the organization shall approve the PSW and provide contact information.
NOTE: One warrant per customer part number can be used to summarize many changes providing that the changes are adequately documented, and the submission is in compliance with customer program timing requirements. PSWs may be submitted electronically in compliance with customer requirements.
a) Part Weight (Mass)
The organization shall record on the PSW the part weight of the part as shipped, measured and expressed in kilograms to four decimal places (0.0000) unless otherwise speciﬁed by the customer. The weight shall not include shipping protectors, assembly aides, or packaging materials. To determine part weight, the organization shall individually weigh ten randomly selected parts, calculate and report the average weight. At least one part shall be measured rom each cavity, tool, line or process to be used in product realization. ‘
NOTE: This weight is used for vehicle weight analysis only and does not affect the approval process. Where there is no production or service requirement for at least ten parts, the organization should use the required number for calculation of the average part weight. For bulk materials, the part weight ﬁeld is not applicable.
Section 3-Customer Notification And Submission Requirements
3.1 Customer Notification
The organization shall notify the authorized customer representative of any planned changes to the design, process, or site. Examples are indicated in the table below .
NOTE: Organizations are responsible to notify the authorized customer representative of all changes to the part design and/or the manufacturing process. Upon notification and approval of the proposed change by the authorized customer representative, and after change implementation, PPAP submission is required unless otherwise speciﬁed.
|Examples of changes requiring notiﬁcation||Clariﬁcations|
|Use of other construction or material than was used in the previously approved part or product||For example, other construction as documented on a deviation (permit) or included as a note on the design record and not covered by an engineering change|
|Production from new or modiﬁed tools (except perishable tools), dies, molds patterns, etc. including additional or replacement tooling||This requirement only applies to tools, which due to their unique form or function, can be expected to inﬂuence the integrity of the ﬁnal product. It is not meant to describe standard tools (new or repaired), such as standard measuring devices, drivers (manual or power), etc.|
|Production following upgrade or rearrangement of existing tooling or equipment.||Upgrade means the reconstruction and/or modiﬁcation of a tool or machine or to increase the capacity, performance, or change its existing function. This is not meant to be confused with normal maintenance, repair or replacement of parts, etc., for which no change in performance is to be expected and post repair veriﬁcation methods have been established. Rearrangement is defined as activity that changes the sequence of product/process ﬂow from that documented in the process ﬂow diagram (including the addition of a new process). Minor adjustments of production equipment may be required to meet safety requirements such as, installation of protective covers, elimination of potential ESD risks, etc.|
|Production from tooling and equipment transferred to a different plant site or from an additional plant site.||Production process tooling and /or equipment transferred between buildings or facilities at one or more sites.|
|Change of supplier for parts, non-equivalent materials, or services (e. g., heat-treating, plating).||The organization is responsible for approval of supplier provided material and services.|
|Product produced after the tooling has been inactive for volume production for twelve months or more.||For product that has been produced after tooling has been inactive for twelve months or more:|
Notification is required when the part has had no change in active purchase order and the existing tooling has been inactive for volume production for twelve months or more. The only exception is when the part has low volume, e.g., service or specialty vehicles. However a customer may specify certain PPAP requirements for service parts.
|Product and process changes related to components of the production product|
manufactured internally or manufactured by
|Any changes, including changes at the suppliers to the organization and their suppliers, that affect customer requirements, e.g., fit, form, function, performance, durability.|
|Change in test/inspection method – new technique (no effect on acceptance criteria)||For change in test method, the organization should have evidence that the new method has measurement capability equivalent to the old method.|
|Additionally, for bulk materials:|
a) New source of raw material from new or
b) Change in product appearance attributes
|These changes would normally be expected to have an effect on the performance of the product.|
3.2 Submission to Customer
The organization shall submit for PPAP approval prior to the ﬁrst production shipment in the following situations unless the authorized customer representative has waived this requirement NOTE: In the situations described below, prior notiﬁcation to, or communication with, the authorized customer representative is assumed.
The organization shall review and update, as necessary, all applicable items in the PPAP ﬁle to reﬂect the production process, regardless of whether or not the customer requests a formal submission. The PPAP ﬁle shall contain the name of the authorized customer representative granting the waiver and the date.
|A new part or product (Le. a speciﬁc part,material, or color not previously supplied to the customer)||Submission is required for a new product (initial release) or a previously approved product that has a new or revised product/part number (e.g., sufﬁx) assigned to it. A new part/product or material added to a family may use appropriate PPAP documentation from a|
previously approved part within the same product family.
|Correction of a discrepancy on a previously submitted part.||Submission is required to correct any discrepancies on a previously submitted part. A “discrepancy” can be related to:|
-The product performance against the customer requirements
-Dimensional or capability issues
-Approval of a part replacing an interim approval
-Testing, including material, performance, or engineering validation
|Engineering change to design records,speciﬁcations, or materials for production product/part numbers(s).||Submission is required on any engineering change to the production product/part design record, speciﬁcations or materials.|
|Additionally, for Bulk Materials:|
Process technology new to the organization, not previously used for this product.
Section 4 — Submission To Customer – Levels of Evidence
4.1 Submission Levels
The organization shall submit the items and/or records speciﬁed in the level identiﬁed below
|Level 1||Warrant only (and for designated appearance items, an Appearance Approval Report) submitted to the customer.|
|Level 2||Warrant with product samples and limited supporting data submitted to the customer.|
|Level 3||Warrant with product samples and complete supporting data submitted to the customer.|
|Level 4||Warrant and other requirements as deﬁned by the customer.|
|Level 5||Warrant with product samples and complete support data reviewed at the organization’s manufacturing location.|
The organization shall use level 3 as the default level for all submissions unless otherwise specified by the authorized customer representative. The minimum submission requirement for bulk materials is the PSW and the Bulk Materials Checklist. For Bulk Material PPAP submissions, check “Other” in the Reason for Submission Section on the PSW form and specify “Bulk Material.” This indicates that the ”Bulk Material Requirements Checklist” was used to packet. specify the PPAP requirements for the bulk material and shall be included in the submission
NOTE: The authorized customer representative may identify a submission level, different from the default level, that is to be used with each organization, or organization and customer part number combination. Different customer locations may assign different submission levels to the same organization manufacturing location. All of the forms referenced in this document may be replaced by computer-generated facsimiles. Acceptability of these facsimiles is to be conﬁrmed with the authorized customer representative prior to the ﬁrst submission.
Table lists submission and retention requirements. Mandatory and applicable requirements for a PPAP record are deﬁned in the PPAP manual and by the customer.
Section 5 – Part Submission Status
Upon approval of the submission, the organization shall assure that future production continues to meet all customer requirements
NOTE: For those organizations that have been classiﬁed as “self certifying” (PPAP submission level 1) by a speciﬁc customer, submission of the required organization-approved documentation will be considered as customer approval unless the organization is advised otherwise.
5.2 Customer PPAP Status
Approved indicates that the part or material, including all sub—components, meets all customer
requirements. The organization is therefore authorized to ship production quantities of the product, subject to releases from the customer scheduling activity.
b) Interim Approval
Interim Approval permits shipment of material for production requirements on a limited time or piece quantity basis. Interim Approval will only be granted when the organization has:
- clearly deﬁned the non-compliances preventing approval; and,
- prepared an action plan agreed upon by the customer. PPAP re—submission is required to obtain a status of “approved.”
Note: The organization is responsible for implementing containment actions to ensure that only
acceptable material is being shipped to the customer. Parts with a status of “Interim Approval” are not to be considered “Approved.” Material covered by an interim approval that fails to meet the agreed—upon action plan, either by the expiration date or the shipment of the authorized quantity, will be rejected. No additional shipments are authorized unless an extension of the interim approval is granted. For bulk materials, the organization shall use the “Bulk Material Interim Approval” form, or its equivalent.
Rejected means that the PPAP submission does not meet customer requirements, based on the production lot from which it was taken and/or accompanying documentation. In such cases, the submission and/or process, as appropriate, shall be corrected to meet customer requirements. The submission shall be approved before production quantities may be shipped.
Section 6 — Record Retention
PPAP records , regardless of submission level, shall be maintained for the length of time that the part is active plus one calendar year. The organization shall ensure that the appropriate PPAP records from a superseded part PPAP ﬁle are included, or referenced in the new part PPAP ﬁle.
NOTE: An example of an appropriate document/record that should be carried forward from the old ﬁle to the new part ﬁle would be a material certiﬁcation from a raw material supplier for a new part that represents only a dimensional change from the old palt number. This should be identiﬁed by conducting a PPAP “gap analysis” between the old and new part numbers.
Part Submission Warrent
1.Part Name and 2a. Customer Part Number: Engineering released ﬁnished end item part name and number.
2b. Org, Part Number: Part number deﬁned by the organization, if any.
3.Shown on Drawing Number: The design record that speciﬁes the customer part number being submitted.
4. Engineering Change Level & Date: Show the change level and date of the design record.
5.Additional Engineering Changes & Date: List all authorized engineering changes not yet incorporated in the design record but which are Incorporated in the part.
6.Safety and/or Government Regulation: “Yes” if so indicated by the design record, otherwise “No.”
7.Purchase Order Number: Enter this number as found on the contract/purchase order.
8.Weight: Enter the actual weight in kilograms to four decimal places unless otherwise speciﬁed by the customer.
9./10. Checking Aid Number, Change Level and Date: If requested by the customer, enter the checking aid number, its change level and date.
ORGANIZATION MANUFACTURING INFORMATION
11.Organization Name & Supplier/Vendor Code: Show the name and code assigned to the manufacturing site on the purchase order/contract.
12.Street Address, Region, Postal Code, Country: Show the complete address of the location where the product was manufactured.For “Region,” enter state, county, province, etc.
CUSTOMER SUBMITTAL INFORMATION
13 Customer Name/Division: Show the corporate name and division or operations group.
14 Buyer/Buyer Code: Enter the buyer’s name and code.
15 Application: Enter the model year, vehicle name, engine, transmission, etc.
16. Substances of Concern: Enter “Yes,” “No,” or “n/a”.
IMDS/Other Customer Format: Circle either “IMDS” or “Other Customer Format” as appropriate. If submitted via IMDS include: Module ID #, Version #, and Creation Date. If submitted via other customer format, enter the date customer conﬁrmation was received.
17. Polymeric Parts Identiﬁcation: Enter “Yes,” “No,” or “n/a”.
REASON FOR SUBMISSION
18. Check the appropriate box(es). For bulk materials, in addition to checking the appropriate box, check “Other” and write “Bulk Material” in the space provided.
19. SUBMISSION LEVEL: Identify the submission level requested by the customer.
20. Check the appropriate boxes for dimensional, material tests, performance tests, appearance evaluation, and statistical data.
21. Check the appropriate box. If “no,” enter the explanation in “comments” below.
22. Molds/Cavities/Production Processes: For instruction, see Part Submission Warrant
23. Enter the number of pieces manufactured during the signiﬁcant production run.
24. Enter the time (in hours) taken for the signiﬁcant production run.
25. EXPLANATION/COMMENTS: Provide any explanatory comments on the Submission Results or any deviations from the Declaration. Attach additional information as appropriate.
26 CUSTOMER TOOL TAGGING/NUMBERING: Are customer-owned tools identified in accord with IATF 16949 and any customer-speciﬁc requirements, answer “Yes” or “No.” May not be applicable to OEM internal suppliers.
27 ORGANIZATION AUTHORIZED SIGNATURE: A responsible organization ofﬁcial, after verifying that the results show conformance to all customer requirements and that all required documentation is available, shall approve the declaration and provide Title, Phone Number, Fax Number, and Email address.
FOR CUSTOMER USE ONLY: Leave Blank
Appearance Approval Report
1.Customer part number: Engineering released customer part number.
2. Drawing Number: Use the number of the drawing on which the part is shown if different from
the part number.
3.Application: Enter the model year and vehicle or other program on which the part is used.
4.Part Name: Use the ﬁnished part name on the part drawing.
5.Buyer Code: Enter the code for speciﬁc buyer of part.
6/7. E/C Level & Date: Engineering change level and E/C date for this submission.
8. Organization Name: Organization responsible for submission (include supplier if applicable)
9. Manufacturing Location: Location Where part was manufactured or assembled.
10.Supplier/Vendor Code: Customer-assigned code for organization location where the part was
manufactured or assembled.
11.Reason for Submission: Check box(es) explaining the reason for this submission.
12.Organization Sourcing & Texture Information: List all first surface tools, graining source(s),
grain type(s), and grain and gloss masters used to check part
13. Pre-Texture Evaluation: To be completed by authorized customer representative
14. Color Sufﬁx: Use alphanumeric or numeric color identiﬁcation.
15. Tristimulus Data: List numerical (colorimeter) data of submission part as compared to the
16. Master Number: Enter alphanumeric master identiﬁcation.
17. Master Date: Enter the date on which the master was approved.
18. Material Type: Identify first surface ﬁnish and substrate (e.g., paint/ABS).
19. Material Source: Identify ﬁrst surface and substrate suppliers. Example : Redspot /Dow.
20. Color Evaluation, Hue, Value, Chroma, Gloss and Metallic Brilliance: Visual assessment by
21. Color Shipping Sufﬁx: Color part number sufﬁx or color number.
22. Part Disposition: To be determined by customer (approved or rejected).
23. Comments: General comments by the organization or customer (optional).
24. Organization Signature, Phone No. & Date: Organization certiﬁcation that the document
information is accurate and meets all requirements speciﬁed.
25. Authorized Customer Representative Signature & Date: Authorized Customer
Representative approval signature.
THE AREAS INSIDE THE BOLD LINES ARE FOR CUSTOMER USE ONLY.
Production Part Approval, Dimensional Results
Production Part Approval, Material Test Results
Production Part Approval, performance Test Results
Bulk Material – Specific Requirements
All organization supplying bulk materials shall comply with the requirements in this Appendix or use guidance herein for clariﬁcation of PPAP. The requirements in this Appendix are minimums and may be supplemented at the discretion of the organization and/or the customer.
Organizations are responsible for applying PPAP to their suppliers of ingredients which have organization- designated special characteristics. Where OEM PPAP approval of a bulk material exists, evidence of that approval is sufﬁcient as the PPAP submission at other levels in the supply chain. Examples of bulk material include, but are not limited to: adhesives and sealants (solders, elastomers); chemicals (rinses, polishes, additives, treatments, colors/pigments, solvents); coatings (top coats, undercoats, primers, phosphates, surface treatments); engine coolants (antifreeze); fabrics; ﬁlm and ﬁlm laminates; ferrous and nonferrous metals (bulk steel, aluminum, coils, ingots); foundry (sand/silica, alloying materials, other minerals/ores); fuels and fuel Components; glass and glass components; lubricants (oils, greases, etc.); monomers, pre-polymers and polymers (rubbers, plastics, resins and their precursors); and performance ﬂuids (transmission, power steering, brake, refrigerant).
Bulk Materials Requirements Checklist
For bulk material, the PPAP elements required are deﬁned by the Bulk Materials Requirements Checklist. Any customer-speciﬁc requirements shall be documented on the Bulk Materials Requirements Checklist. Use the Bulk Materials Requirements Checklist as follows:
- Required / Target Date: For each item listed in the checklist either enter a target date for completion of the element or enter “NR” for Not Required.
- Primary Responsibility- Customer: Identify by name or function the individual who Will
- review and approve the element.
- Primary Responsibility – Organization: Identify by name or function the individual who will
- assemble and assure the completeness of the element to be reviewed. 1
- Comments / Conditions: Identify any qualifying information or references to attached documents that provide speciﬁc information regarding the element. For example, this may include speciﬁc formats to be used for the Design Matrix or acceptable tolerances for Measurement System Analysis (MSA) studies.
- Approved by: Enter the initials of the authorized customer representative who has reviewed and accepted the element.
- Plan agreed to by: Identify the individuals (and their functions) who made and agreed upon the project plan.
Organizations supplying bulk material generally deal with the chemistry and functionality of the product being designed. Use of these suggestions will arrive at the same end point of a completed Design FMEA, but with greater applicability to bulk materials. For bulk materials, a Design Matrix, when required, shall be prepared prior to developing the Design FMEA. The Design Matrix determines the complex interactions of formula ingredients, ingredient characteristics, product characteristics, process constraints, and conditions for customer use. High impact items can then be effectively analyzed in the Design FMEA.
Design Matrix —— Elaboration
This matrix correlates customer expectations with the product design items. Construct the Design Matrix referring to the example which will follow:
- Along the horizontal axis, list the Functions (Desired Attributes/Potential Failure Modes).
- Along the vertical axis, list the design items as Potential Causes (Category/Characteristics) :
- Formula Ingredients
- Ingredient Characteristics
- Product Characteristics
- Process Constraints
- Conditions for Use (customer process constraints)
- For each design item, enter the current robust threshold range levels and units.
- Correlate the potential causes to the potential failure modes using a number, letter, or symbol representing the impact or strength of the relationship. Ask what would happen if a potential cause item is allowed to go under or over its robust minimum or maximum, respectively.
- After completion of the rankings in the Design Matrix, review the category/characteristics for a preliminary assessment of Special Characteristics. Designate any Special Characteristics in column 1.
- The high negative impact potential causes are transferred to the Design FMEA for analysis.
Negative impact on Customer expectation: High=3, Medium=2, Low =1,None=0, Unknown=?
Effects of Failure and Severity Rankings
The following two steps provide an alternative method for identifying the Potential Effects of Failure and assigning a Severity Ranking.
List Effects of Failure
- Consumer Effects- General terms identifying the loss experienced by the ultimate user of the product (e. g. the vehicle buyer).
- Customer Effects- General terms identifying the loss experienced by the intermediate user of your product (e g., the vehicle manufacturer).
Assign a Severity Ranking to each Effect
- See the Severity Deﬁnition and Evaluation Criteria in the Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis reference manual.
- The goal for each of the items that multiply to arrive at the Risk Priority Number is to differentiate between the items in that category. The following ﬁgure provides a guideline for severity rankings. If your situation only uses a small portion of the scale then develop your own scale to improve the differentiation. If your situation is greater than two tiers back from the ﬁnal consumer, then the guideline figure should be adjusted to reﬂect the effects that will be felt by your customer’s customer.
Potential Cause(s)/Mechanisms of Failure and Design Matrix
From the Design Matrix (if used), list the high negative impact characteristics as the Potential Causes/Mechanisms of Failure which are associated with Potential Failure Modes. Mechanisms are generally described as over or under a certain threshold. These thresholds deﬁne the boundaries of the product approval and subsequent requirements for change notiﬁcation.
Likelihood of Occurrence Rankings
The following step provides an alternate method for assigning Occurrence ratings.
Rank Occurrence – the ranking scale in the Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis manual is
difﬁcult to relate to bulk materials and generally results in very low numbers with little differentiation in the ultimate risk. The following matrix is recommended as a replacement. It evaluates the frequency of occurrence based upon observed evidence the formulator has in the design.
Actual Experience: Obtained from appropriate experimentation on the-speciﬁc ﬁnal product and the potential failure mode.
Similar Experience: Based upon similar products or processes and the potential failure model.
Assumption: Based upon a clear understanding of the chemical impact of the material and the
potential failure mode.
Frequency ranking clariﬁcations:
- High is deﬁned as – Repeated failures
- Moderate is deﬁned as – Occasional failures
- Low is deﬁned as – Relatively few failures
Current Design Controls
Design Control: Supplementing the Failure Mode Effects and Analysis manual bulk material design controls may also include:
- Designed Experiments (DOE’ s)— List experiment #’ s
- Customer validation tests and trial runs – e. g. gravelometer panels, fender sprayouts (list customer reference #’ S).
- Test protocols- list Test Methods, Standard Operating Procedures etc.
- Variation of supplier speciﬁcations.
- Formulating practice robust ranges.
Design controls identiﬁed by a number should be available so that the relevant content of that control can be understood.
Likelihood of Detection Rankings
The next step provides an alternate method for assigning Detection rankings.
Rank Detection – the ranking scale in the Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis manual is difﬁcult to relate to bulk materials and generally results in very low numbers with little differentiation in the ultimate risk. The following matrix may be used. It evaluates the Detection as the ability of the current Design Control to actually detect a cause of failure and/or failure mode based upon the assessed Testing Method R&R’s percent of speciﬁcation range) and the quality of evidence.
DOE (Response Surface Analysis): Symmetric design space analyzed with appropriate statistical tools.
Screening Experiments: Screening design or ladder evaluation strategically set to develop DOE.
Assumption/Experience: Information/data based upon similar products or processes.
Note: The above R&R limits are suggested unless otherwise agreed upon by the customer and
organization. R&R calculations can initially be based using design matrix thresholds.
If product characteristics/ attributes can have normal variation resulting in movement outside their design-intended robust range which results in signiﬁcant impact, they are designated special, and must be controlled by special controls.
Special Characteristics – Elaboration
For clarification purposes, the following figure is intended to demonstrate the ﬂow of potential special characteristics through the supply chain.
The Bulk Material Control Plan serves as a mechanism to:
- Highlight Special Product/Process Characteristics and their controls
- Link together sources of control methods, instructions and speciﬁcation/tolerance limits and reference them in one document
Additionally, this control plan is not intended to recreate speciﬁcationand/or tolerance limits that exist in other control sources such as batch tickets, work instructions and testing protocols.
Control Plan – Elaboration
Refer to the customer’s speciﬁed control plan format
- Prototype (when required) — A listing of tests, evaluations and their associated specifications/tolerances used to assess an experimental or developmental formulation. This may be the only control plan that is product specific.
- Pre-launch – Documentation of the product/process control characteristics, process controls affecting Special Characteristics, associated tests, and measurement systems employed during product scale up and prior to normal production.
- Production – Documentation of the product/process control characteristics, process controls affecting Special Characteristics, associated tests, and measurement systems employed during normal production. Additional items may be included at the Organization’s discretion.
Pre-launch and production control plans may be applied to a family of products or speciﬁc processes.
Measurements system Analsis MSA Studies
Bulk materials often require further processing after sampling in order to make a measurement. Measurements are often destructive in nature and this prevents retesting the same sample. Measurement variability is often much larger for properties important in the process industries (e.g. viscosity and purity) than it is for properties measured in mechanical industries (e.g., dimensions). Measurement may account for 50% or more of the total observed variation. Standardized test methods (e. g. ASTM, AMS, ISO) are often followed. The organization need not re-verify bias, linearity, stability, and Gage R&R. MSA studies are not required where standardized tests are used, however it is still important for the organization to understand the measurement component of variation in the test methods used. Customer agreement on the actual requirements for MSA for either non-standard test methods or “new-to-supplier” test methods should be obtained during the planning phase. Any MSA studies should be applied to each test method associated with Special Characteristics, and not to each individual product measured by the test method. Therefore, the MSA studies should be conducted as broadly as possible across all products which use a particular test method. If the resulting variability is unacceptable, then either the studies should be conducted on a narrower class of products or action should be taken to improve the test method.
Initial Process Studies for special Characteristics
The manufacture of bulk materials consists of industries which span a variety of production processes, from high volume products to specialty products produced in small quantities no more than once or twice per year. Often the production process is completed or already in place before sufficient samples can be tested. By the time the product is made again, personnel and/or equipment may have changed. Also, these processes have numerous input variables, many control variables, and a variety of product variations. There are non-linearities – meaning for example that doubling the change in a particular input does not necessarily double the change in the output. The effects and relationships between all these variables and controls are also not usually known Without error. Multiple processes are usually interconnected, sometimes with feedback loops. There are also timing considerations and delays in reaction time. Further, measurements of component variables are generally less precise that measurements of component parts, such that in many cases correlated variables must be used
The requirements for master sample or equivalent shall be agreed by the customer and organization.
Physical Sample: Some bulk materials are stable and unchanging over an extended period of time (e.g., they do not signiﬁcantly change physical or chemical composition, if properly stored, for decades). In this case, a physical sample will serve as a Master Sample.
Analytical Sample Record: Other bulk materials change with time, but can be precisely quantiﬁed by appropriate analytical techniques. In this case the analytical record (e.g., Ultra—Violet or Infra—Red spectra “ﬁngerprint,” Atomic Absorption or Gas Chromatographic—Mass Spectrometric analysis) is an appropriate Master Sample.
Manufacturing Sample Record: When bulk materials can not be distinctly identiﬁed or change over time, a manufacturing sample record should be generated. The record Should include the information required to manufacture a “normal production size” run (lot or batch), according to the ﬁnal “Production Control Plan” supporting the PSW. This record provides an “audit trail” to the information which may be stored in various documents and or electronic systems. The following is the basic information suggested to accomplish this task:
- The quantity of product produced.
- The important performance results.
- The raw materials utilized (including manufacturer, Lot #and important properties records).
- The critical equipment required to manufacture the bulk material.
- Analytical sample records, as described above, on the material as produced.
- Batch ticket used to manufacture the bulk material.
Part Submission Warrant
A Part Submission Warrant shall be prepared and submitted for approval when required by the customer. If a customer agrees that PPAP is not required, no warrant needs to be prepared. The information required by the Submission Warrant which does not apply to bulk material (e. g., part weight, dimensional measurement) does not need to be provided. For those organizations that have been classiﬁed as “self certifying” by a speciﬁc customer, submission of a warrant signed only by the organization shall be evidence of PPAP approval, unless the organization is advised otherwise. For all other organizations, evidence of PPAP approval shall be a warrant signed by both the authorized customer representative and organization or other customer approval documents.
Most products will achieve approval prior to initial use. In cases where approval cannot be obtained, a “Bulk Material Interim Approval” may be granted, A form is shown on the facing page; other forms may
COMPLETION OF THE BULK MATERIAL INTERIM APPROVAL FORM
1.ORGANIZATION NAME: Name assigned to Organization’s manufacturing location.
2. PRODUCT NAME: The Organization’s designated name for the product—as identiﬁed in the Customer’s Engineering Release Documents.
3. SUPPLIER/VENDOR CODE: Code (DUNS number or equivalent) assigned to the manufacturing location as shown on the Customer’s purchase order.
4. ENG. SPEC: Customer’s identified Specification through which the product is approved and released.
5. MANUF. SITE: Physical address of the manufacturing location as shown on the Customer’s purchase order.
6. PART #: Customer’s Part Number.
7.ENG. CHANGE #: Formula Revision Level or number identifying the formula.
8. FORMULA DATE: Engineering Release Date of the formula identiﬁed in item #7.
9. RECEIVED DATE: Customer Use Only.
10. RECEIVED BY: Customer Use Only (Customer Representative).
11.SUBMISSION LEVEL: Submission Level (1—5) that Organization is required to submit to as defined by the Customer.
12. EXPIRATION DATE: Date that the Interim Approval expires.
13. TRACKING CODE: Customer Use Only.
14. RE-SUBMISSION DATE: Date organization will resubmit for production approval.
15. STATUS: For each item, enter appropriate code (NR- Not Required, A-Approved, I-Interim).
16.SPECIFIC QUANTITY OF MATERIAL AUTHORIZED: Utilized when Interim Approval speciﬁes a specific quantity of volume of product.
17.PRODUCTION TRIAL AUTHORIZATION: Customer’s Engineering Release authorizing the use of the product in the Customer’s facility.
18.REASON(S) FOR INTERIM APPROVAL: Indicate reason for Interim Request.
19. ISSUES TO BE RESOLVED, EXPECTED COMPLETION DATE: For each item marked as “I” in #15, provide explanatory details regarding problem issues and furnish a date for problem resolution.
20.ACTIONS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED DURING INTERIM PERIOD, EFFECTIVE DATE: What is being done to ensure defective product is contained, date when the action was implemented and Exit Criteria necessary to end need for continuing the action or its individual. elements.
21. PROGRESS REVIEW DATE: Update on progress of problem resolution, generally the midpoint from issuance to expiration of the interim period.
22. DATE MATERIAL DUE TO PLANT: Date material is due to Customer’s site.
23. WHAT ACTIONS ARE TAKING PLACE TO ENSURE THAT FUTURE SUBMISSIONS WILL CONFORM TO ALL PPAP REQUIREMENTS BY THE SAMPLE PROMISE DATE? Why won’t this happen again?
24. ORGANIZATION: Responsible and Authorized Organization official to ensure compliance to the above mentioned actions and dates. ‘
25.PRODUCT ENG.: Product Engineer’s signature, printed name, phone number, and date.
26. MATERIALS ENG.: Material Engineer’s signature, printed name, phone number, and date.
27. QUALITY ENG: Quality Engineer’s signature, printed name, phone number, and date.
28. INTERIM APPROVAL NUMBER: Customer Use Only.
Customer Plant Connection .
1 Customer’s Responsibilities
The customer plant connection is a shared responsibility between the organization supplying bulk material and the customer. This connection deﬁnes the interaction of speciﬁc customer plant processing steps with Special Characteristics and ﬁnal product attributes of the bulk material. This interaction is especially signiﬁcant when bulk materials undergo chemical or physical transformation(s). Three key components of the Customer Plant Connection are the development of a Customer Process Matrix, determination of Special Characteristics from the Customer Process Matrix, and the preparation of a Control Plan which systematically directs corrective actions. For bulk materials, conducting the steps outlined in this “Customer Plant Connection” is highly recommended.
NOTE: It is not the intent of PPAP to compromise proprietary information.
2 Customer Plant Connection — Clariﬁcation
The following is applicable to materials that are transformed ﬁ‘om bulk (e.g., wet can of paint) to ﬁnal product (e. g., cured paint ﬁlm). This may not be applicable to all bulk materials (i.e. washer ﬂuid, engine oil, etc.). It is recognized by the organization that it is their responsibility to deliver the product to the customer with the characteristics of the bulk material per organization and customer agreement. The impact of the transformation of bulk materials by the customer plant on ﬁnal product attributes may be accounted for in the customer’s application process. During the transformation from bulk product to ﬁnal product, both bulk product characteristics and ﬁnal product attributes may be impacted by customer process controls. PPAP does not require a Process FMEA or Control Plan for the customer process. Since the product is frequently two products (bulk and ﬁnished), there is a shared responsibility for the ﬁnal product attribute. For example, percent solids and viscosity of a bulk coating which impacts the ﬁnal coating’s ﬁlm build attribute, may be affected by the customer’s mix room percent solvent reduction. The percent reduction process parameter may therefore be controlled to aid in control of ﬁlm build. The process steps at customer plants may be matrixed versus the Special Characteristics (determined jointly by the organization and the customer). Where high impact is evident, those process steps may be analyzed by the Process FMEA methodology. The Special Characteristics may then be determined, and be included in a Control Plan for the customer process. These special control characteristic items may be monitored and continuously improved.
3. Customer Plant Connection – Guidelines
The following is a recommended set of guidelines for the customer plant when implementing process controls for bulk materials.
- Assemble cross—functional teams of customer personnel for each customer process area.
Include appropriate organization representatives on each team.
- Select Champions for each team – these are the customer process owners (i.e., chief process
engineer, area supervisor, etc.).
- Deﬁne critical customer handling, application steps and process parameters in each area.
- Review the organization’s Design Matrix and Design FMEA items for application functions
which have been designated as Special Characteristics. Also review the desired ﬁnal product
attributes for items needing control.
- From #4, develop a list of Special Characteristics and Attributes.
- Construct a Customer Process Matrix, using #3 as the top, and #5 as the side. of a matrix.
- Perform a Customer Process FMEA, focusing on the high‘impact customer process areas which impact the Special Characteristics.
- Determine Special Characteristics from the Customer Process Matrix and PF MEA (e.g., paint ﬂuid ﬂow, gun distance, etc.).
- Prepare a Control Plan for each affected customer process area. The plan might contain at a minimum all process steps containing Special Characteristics.
- Monitor and record all Special Characteristics by appropriate means (control charts, checklists, etc.).
- Ensure stability of Special Characteristics and continuously improve where possible.
Tires – Specific Requirements
1 Introduction and Applicability
An organization supplying tires shall comply with the requirements of PPAP. This Appendix is to be used as guidance for clariﬁcation of requirements unless otherwise speciﬁed by the authorized OEM customer representative. Performance testing, based upon design requirements used by each OEM to select tire construction (technical approval), reduces the need to repeat all tests during PPAP. Speciﬁc PPAP conﬁrmation tests are speciﬁed by each OEM.
2 Guidelines for PPAP Requirements
Signiﬁcant Production Run: Unless otherwise speciﬁed by the OEM, the size of the production run for the PPAP parts is a minimum of 30 tires.
NOTE: The above deﬁnition applies to all uses of “signiﬁcant production run” within PPAP. The typical development of a new tire design involves multiple builds of a small quantity of tires. Most designs are basic to the organization’s process. For the tire industry, PPAP is typically completed with an initial mold or molds, and well in advance of customer requirements for large volume production. The PPAP for the tire industry typically is derived from 1 to 8 hours of tire curing from the approved production process as speciﬁed in the organization’s control plan. PPAP is not required for additional molds that are brought on line in the approved production process.All additional molds shall be certiﬁed by the organization’s internal certiﬁcation criteria and documentation. For tires, tooling is deﬁned as the tire mold. This deﬁnition of tooling applies to all uses of “tooling” within PPAP.
Material Test Results: Testing is applicable only to ﬁnished tires and not to raw materials. Tire industry practice does not require chemical, physical, or metallurgical testing. Material test results are not required for PPAP.
Special Characteristics: Tire uniformity (force variation) and balance are designated Special Characteristics.
Appearance Approval Report (AAR): The AAR requirement is not applicable.
Master Sample: Master samples are not retained.
Process Flow Diagrams: See above
Checking Aids: Checking aids are not required.
PPAP Submission Warrant: Reporting of multiple cavities, molds, lines, etc. on the PSW is not required for tires.
Part Weight (Mass): PPAP tires are weighed to two (2) signiﬁcant decimals (XX.XX). The average is reported on the PSW to four (4) decimals (XX.XXXX)
3 Submission to Customer – Levels of Evidence
Retention/Submission Requirements : Records of items submitted (S) and retained (R) are maintained at appropriate locations designated by the organization.
Truck Industry – Specific Requirements
An organization supplying to subscribing truck OEMs shall comply with the requirements in this Appendix or use guidance herein for clariﬁcation of PPAP. The requirements in this Appendix are minimums and may be supplemented at the discretion of the organization and/or the customer.
The following additional requirements are added:
- The Customer has the right to request a PPAP at any time to re-qualify a production component.
- Feature Base Process or Part Number Generated components are PPAP qualiﬁed using the highest content conﬁguration to qualify the master part number. All other conﬁgurations may be approved with the submission of a PSW linking the new part number with the master part number.
- For bulk material and standard catalog parts, the organization shall formally qualify their product to their design record and submit a PSW when requested by the customer.
Signiﬁcant Production Run
It is important that adequate quantities of parts be manufactured during this run to conﬁrm the quality and capability of production process at rate prior to full production. It is recognized that in low volume applications, sample sizes as small as 30 pieces may be utilized for preliminary process capability studies. When performing the Signiﬁcant Production Run, all aspects of variability within the production process should be considered and tested where practicable, e.g., set-up variability or other potential process related issues identiﬁed within the PFMEA. Sample sizes must be discussed and agreed to early in the APQP process. If projected volumes are so low
that 30 samples are not attainable prior to production, interim PPAP approval may be granted. A
dimensional report with 100% inspection on special characteristics is required during the interim period. Once the 30 consecutive production samples are produced, measured, and the quality index calculated and accepted, then the interim approval is changed to approved.
The organization shall submit, as part of the PPAP package, a copy of the drawing with each dimension, test, and or speciﬁcation identiﬁed with a unique number. These unique numbers shall be entered onto the dimensional or test results sheet as applicable, and actual results entered onto the appropriate sheets. The organization shall also identify the print zone for each numbered characteristic as applicable.
The organization shall also submit a completed Design Veriﬁcation Plan and Report that summarizes appropriate performance and functional test results.
When the customer speciﬁes special characteristics and the estimated annual usage is less than 500 pieces the organization shall document in their control plan that they will either perform 100% inspection and record the results or conduct an initial process capability study with a minimum of 30 production pieces and maintain SPC control charts of the characteristics during production.
For special characteristics that can be studied using variables data, the organization shall utilize One of the following techniques to study the stability of the process:
X-Bar and R Charts, n=5, plot minimum 6 subgroups or Individual X – Moving Range, plot minimum 30 data points.
When performing the initial process study, data shall be plotted from consecutive parts taken from the production trial run. These studies could be augmented or replaced by long-term results from the same or similar process run on the same equipment with prior customer concurrence.
The master sample shall be retained after PPAP approval when specified by the Customer.
Part Submission Warrant
When speciﬁed by the customer, organizations shall use the Truck Industry PSW
Part Weight (mass)
The organization may record the part weight of the part submitted on the PSW measured and expressed in kilograms to four significant ﬁgures (e.g., lOOOKg, 100.0Kg, 10.00Kg, and 1.000Kg) unless otherwise speciﬁed by the customer. To determine part weight, the organization shall individually weigh ten randomly selected parts, and calculate and report the average weight. At least one part shall be measured from each cavity, tool, line, or process used in product realization.
The organization shall notify the customer of any planned design and process changes. The customer may subsequently elect to require a submission for PPAP approval. Organizations supplying to subscribing truck OEMs are required to complete the Product Process Change notiﬁcation form to advise of forthcoming process or proprietary product changes.
Completion of the Part Submission Warrant
1. Part Name: Engineering released finished end item part name.
2. Customer Part Number(s): Engineering released ﬁnished end item part number.
3. Part Revision Level: if applicable.
4. Tool Purchase Order Number: if applicable.
5. Engineering Drawing Change Level & Approval Date: Show change level and date for submission.
6. Additional Engineering Changes: Include all authorized engineering change documents and approval dates not yet incorporated on the drawing but which are incorporated in the part.
7. Shown on Drawing Number: The design record that speciﬁes the customer part number being submitted.
8. Purchase Order Number: Enter this number as found on the purchase order.
9. Part weight: Enter the actual weight in kilograms to four significant places.
10 Checking Aid Number: Enter the checking aid number, if one is used for dimensional inspection,
11. Its Engineering Change Level and Approval Date.
ORGANIZATION MANUFACTURING INFORMATION
12. Organization Name and Code: Show the code assigned to the manufacturing location on the purchase order.
13. Organization Manufacturing Address: Show the complete address of the location where the product was manufactured.
14. Customer Name/Division: Show the corporate name and division or operations group.
15. Contact Name: Enter the name of your customer contact.
16. Application: Enter the model year, vehicle name, or engine, transmission, etc.
17. Check the appropriate box to indicate Substances of Concern/ISO marking reporting.
REASON FOR SUBMISSION
18. Check the appropriate box. Add explanatory details in the “other” section.
REQUESTED SUBMISSION LEVEL
19. Identify the submission level requested by your customer. Check the submission items if a level 4 is requested.
20. Explanation/Comments: Provide any explanatory details on the submission results; additional information may be attached as appropriate.
21. Enter the number or code that identiﬁes the speciﬁc mold, cavity, and/or production process used to manufacture the sample parts.
22.The responsible supplier official, after verifying that the results show conformance to all customer requirements and that all required documentation is available, shall approve the declaration and provide Title, Phone Number, Email Address, and Fax Number.
FOR CUSTOMER USE ONLY: Leave blank.