18.104.22.168 Hazard identification
The organization shall establish, implement and maintain a process(es) for hazard identification that is ongoing and proactive. The process(es) shall take into account, but not be limited to:
- how work is organized, social factors (including workload, work hours, victimization, harassment and bullying), leadership and the culture in the organization;
- routine and non-routine activities and situations, including hazards arising from:
- infrastructure, equipment, materials, substances and the physical conditions of the workplace;
- product and service design, research, development, testing, production, assembly, construction, service delivery, maintenance and disposal;
- human factors;
- how the work is performed;
- past relevant incidents, internal or external to the organization, including emergencies, and their causes;
- potential emergency situations;
- people, including consideration of:
- those with access to the workplace and their activities, including workers, contractors, visitors and other persons;
- those in the vicinity of the workplace who can be affected by the activities of the organization;
- workers at a location not under the direct control of the organization;
- other issues, including consideration of:
- the design of work areas, processes, installations, machinery/equipment, operating procedures and work organization, including their adaptation to the needs and capabilities of the workers involved;
- situations occurring in the vicinity of the workplace caused by work-related activities under the control of the organization;
- situations not controlled by the organization and occurring in the vicinity of the workplace that can cause injury and ill health to persons in the workplace;
- actual or proposed changes in organization, operations, processes, activities and the OH&S management system (see 8.1.3);
- changes in knowledge of, and information about, hazards.
As per Annex A (Guidance on the use of ISO 45001:2018 standard) of ISO 45001:2018 standard it further explains
The ongoing proactive identification of hazard begins at the conceptual design stage of any new workplace, facility, product or organization. It should continue as the design is detailed and then comes into operation, as well as being ongoing during its full life cycle to reflect current, changing and future activities. While this document does not address product safety (i.e. safety to end-users of products), hazards to workers occurring during manufacture, construction, assembly or testing of products should be considered. Hazard identification helps the organization recognize and understand the hazards in the workplace and to workers, in order to assess, prioritize and eliminate hazards or reduce OH&S risks. Hazards can be physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial, mechanical, electrical or based on movement and energy.
The list given in 22.214.171.124 is not exhaustive.
NOTE The numbering of the following list items a) to f) does not correspond exactly to the numbering of the list items given in 126.96.36.199.
The organization’s hazard identification process(es) should consider:
a) routine and non-routine activities and situations:
1) routine activities and situations create hazards through day-to-day operations and normal work activities;
2) non-routine activities and situations are occasional or unplanned;
3) short-term or long-term activities can create different hazards;
b) human factors:
1) relate to human capabilities, limitations and other characteristics;
2) information should be applied to tools, machines, systems, activities and environment for safe, comfortable human use;
3) should address three aspects: the activity, the worker and the organization, and how these interact with and impact on occupational health and safety;
c) new or changed hazards:
1) can arise when work processes are deteriorated, modified, adapted or evolved as a result of familiarity or changing circumstances;
2) understanding how work is actually performed (e.g. observing and discussing hazards with workers) can identify if OH&S risks are increased or reduced;
d) potential emergency situations:
1) unplanned or unscheduled situations that require an immediate response (e.g. a machine catching fire in the workplace, or a natural disaster in the vicinity of the workplace or at another location where workers are performing work-related activities);
2) include situations such as civil unrest at a location at which workers are performing work- related activities which requires their urgent evacuation;
1) those in the vicinity of the workplace who could be affected by the activities of the organization (e.g. passers-by, contractors or immediate neighbours);
2) workers at a location not under the direct control of the organization, such as mobile workers or workers who travel to perform work-related activities at another location (e.g. postal workers, bus drivers, service personnel travelling to and working at a customer’s site);
3) home-based workers, or those who work alone;
f) changes in knowledge of, and information about, hazards:
1) sources of knowledge, information and new understanding about hazards can include published literature, research and development, feedback from workers, and review of the organization’s own operational experience;
2) these sources can provide new information about the hazards and OH&S risks.
1) The organization shall establish, implement and maintain a process(es) for hazard identification that is ongoing and proactive.
Establishing a robust process for hazard identification is essential for ensuring the safety and well-being of employees, customers, and the community. Here are the steps an organization can follow to establish such a process:
- Start by gaining commitment and support from top management. Leadership buy-in is crucial for allocating resources and creating a safety culture.
- Form a multidisciplinary safety committee or team responsible for overseeing the hazard identification process. Include representatives from various departments and levels within the organization.
- Familiarize yourself with the relevant laws, regulations, and industry standards related to safety and hazard identification. Compliance with these requirements is essential.
- Clearly define the objectives and scope of the hazard identification process. Determine what types of hazards you will assess, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, or psychosocial hazards.
- Encourage employees and stakeholders to report hazards and near misses. Implement a reporting system that allows for easy and anonymous reporting, if necessary.
- Evaluate the identified hazards to assess their risk levels. Consider the likelihood and severity of each hazard’s impact. Use tools like risk matrices or qualitative risk assessment methods.
- Prioritize hazards based on their risk level. This helps allocate resources and address the most critical issues first.
- Develop and implement control measures to mitigate or eliminate identified hazards. Control measures may include engineering controls, administrative controls, or personal protective equipment (PPE).
- Ensure that employees are trained in hazard identification and understand the importance of reporting hazards. Regularly communicate safety information and updates.
- Maintain comprehensive records of hazard identification activities, risk assessments, control measures, and any incident reports. Documentation is essential for accountability and continuous improvement.
- Establish a process for ongoing monitoring and periodic review of the hazard identification process. Evaluate the effectiveness of control measures and make adjustments as needed.
- Encourage a culture of continuous improvement by learning from incidents and near misses. Use lessons learned to refine the hazard identification process.
- Conduct regular safety audits and inspections to verify compliance with safety protocols and identify new hazards.
- Encourage employees to provide feedback on the hazard identification process and involve them in finding solutions to identified hazards.
- Consider seeking input from external safety experts or consultants to gain an objective perspective on your hazard identification process.
- Ensure that hazard identification includes potential emergency situations and that the organization has emergency response plans in place.
- Provide training to employees and safety committee members on hazard identification techniques and risk assessment methodologies to enhance their competency.
- Establish a process for reporting and investigating incidents related to hazards. This helps identify root causes and prevent recurrence.
- Create a feedback loop to ensure that hazard identification efforts lead to continuous improvement and a safer work environment.
Remember that hazard identification is an ongoing process that requires commitment, resources, and the involvement of all employees. Regularly assess and refine your approach to adapt to changing circumstances and emerging risks. There are several different processes and methodologies that organizations can use for hazard identification, depending on their specific needs and the nature of their operations. Here are some of the most common hazard identification processes:
- Job Safety Analysis (JSA) / Job Hazard Analysis (JHA): JSA or JHA involves breaking down each job or task into its individual steps and identifying potential hazards associated with each step. This method is particularly useful in industries with routine, repetitive tasks.
- Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP): HAZOP is a systematic technique used in industries like chemical processing to identify deviations from design intent that may lead to hazards. It involves a team of experts analyzing processes and identifying potential deviations and their consequences.
- Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA): FMEA is a structured approach used in various industries to identify and prioritize potential failure modes of a product, process, or system, along with their effects and causes.
- Checklists and Forms: Using checklists and forms tailored to specific types of work or tasks can help identify common hazards. These are often used in construction, healthcare, and other industries.
- Process Safety Management (PSM): PSM is a comprehensive approach used in industries dealing with hazardous chemicals or processes. It includes hazard identification as one of its key elements and involves a range of tools and assessments.
- Observation and Walkthroughs: Conducting regular workplace observations and walkthroughs allows for the identification of hazards in real-time. This method involves employees, supervisors, or safety experts actively looking for unsafe conditions and behaviors.
- Safety Data Sheets (SDS) Review: In industries dealing with chemicals, reviewing SDS can help identify potential hazards associated with the substances used in the workplace.
- Near Miss Reporting: Encouraging employees to report near misses (incidents that could have resulted in an accident but did not) can provide valuable insights into potential hazards.
- Safety Surveys and Questionnaires: Surveys and questionnaires can be used to gather feedback and input from employees regarding safety concerns and hazards they may have encountered.
- Brainstorming and Group Discussions: Facilitate group discussions or brainstorming sessions with employees and safety committees to identify hazards. This can be a useful method for tapping into collective knowledge and experience.
- Root Cause Analysis (RCA): RCA is typically used after incidents to identify the underlying causes of accidents or near misses, helping to uncover latent hazards.
- Expert Consultation: Bringing in safety experts or consultants with industry-specific knowledge can provide valuable insights into potential hazards.
- External Audits and Inspections: External audits and inspections by regulatory authorities or third-party organizations can help identify compliance issues and potential hazards.
- Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) Observations: BBS programs involve observing and assessing employee behaviors to identify unsafe practices and areas where safety improvements are needed.
- Predictive Analytics and Machine Learning: In some industries, advanced technologies and data analysis tools can be used to predict potential hazards based on historical data and trends.
Hazard identification should be an ongoing and proactive process within any organization. Here are some key reasons why this approach is crucial:
- Changing Conditions: Hazards within an organization can change over time due to factors such as new equipment, processes, materials, or changes in the work environment. Proactive identification ensures that new risks are recognized and addressed promptly.
- Emerging Risks: New risks and hazards may emerge due to advancements in technology, changes in regulations, or evolving industry standards. Being proactive allows you to stay ahead of these emerging risks.
- Continuous Improvement: Proactively identifying and mitigating hazards is integral to a culture of continuous improvement. Regular hazard assessments can lead to safer work practices and a reduction in incidents.
- Prevention over Reaction: Proactive hazard identification aims to prevent accidents and incidents from occurring in the first place, rather than reacting after something has gone wrong. This approach can save lives, reduce injuries, and minimize damage.
- Legal and Regulatory Compliance: Many safety regulations and standards require organizations to have ongoing hazard identification processes in place. Failing to do so can result in non-compliance and legal consequences.
To establish an ongoing and proactive hazard identification process, consider the following practices:
- Regular Inspections and Audits: Conduct regular safety inspections and audits of your workplace to identify hazards and assess compliance with safety protocols.
- Employee Training and Involvement: Train employees to recognize hazards and encourage them to report safety concerns and near misses. Employee involvement is critical for a proactive safety culture.
- Continuous Monitoring: Use incident and near-miss data, as well as safety performance indicators, to monitor safety trends and identify potential areas of improvement.
- Risk Assessments: Perform risk assessments as part of any change in operations, including new processes, equipment, or facilities. This ensures that potential hazards are assessed before they become critical.
- Emergency Preparedness: Regularly review and update emergency response plans to ensure they are up to date with current hazards and risks.
- Feedback and Communication: Establish a clear feedback loop for reporting and acting on identified hazards. Communication is key to addressing hazards promptly.
- Management Review: Have periodic reviews with management to assess the effectiveness of the hazard identification process and make necessary adjustments.
- Technology and Tools: Consider using technology and safety management software to streamline the hazard identification process, track findings, and manage corrective actions.
- External Resources: Seek input from safety experts and consultants to conduct independent reviews and provide insights into potential hazards.
Here are some examples of hazard identification in an OHS MS:
- Physical Hazards:
- Slippery Floors: Wet or oily surfaces in the workplace that can cause slips and falls.
- Mechanical Hazards: Moving machinery, equipment, or tools that could lead to crushing, cutting, or entanglement injuries.
- Noise: High noise levels from machinery or processes that can cause hearing damage.
- Chemical Hazards:
- Hazardous Chemicals: Identifying and assessing the risks associated with the use, storage, and disposal of chemicals, including their toxicity, flammability, and reactivity.
- Exposure to Harmful Substances: Ensuring employees are not exposed to harmful substances, like asbestos, lead, or toxic fumes, during their work.
- Biological Hazards:
- Infectious Agents: Identifying the risk of exposure to pathogens, bacteria, and viruses, especially in healthcare or laboratory settings.
- Allergens: Identifying allergens that could cause allergic reactions in employees, such as certain foods or substances.
- Ergonomic Hazards:
- Poor Ergonomics: Identifying ergonomic issues in workstations, like improper chair and desk heights, which can lead to musculoskeletal disorders.
- Repetitive Motion: Recognizing jobs that involve repetitive motions, such as typing, that can lead to repetitive strain injuries.
- Psychosocial Hazards:
- Workplace Stress: Identifying stressors like heavy workloads, bullying, or lack of work-life balance that can impact employees’ mental health.
- Violence: Assessing the risk of workplace violence or harassment, especially in customer-facing roles or healthcare settings.
- Environmental Hazards:
- Natural Disasters: Identifying risks associated with natural disasters like earthquakes, floods, or wildfires that can impact the workplace.
- Air Quality: Assessing indoor air quality, especially in facilities where poor ventilation can lead to health issues.
- Fire Hazards:
- Flammable Materials: Identifying and managing the risks associated with flammable materials, chemicals, or substances.
- Electrical Hazards: Recognizing potential electrical hazards, such as faulty wiring or overloaded circuits.
- Biomechanical Hazards:
- Manual Handling: Identifying risks associated with manual handling of heavy objects, which can lead to back injuries.
- Falls from Heights: Assessing the risk of falls from ladders, scaffolding, or elevated work platforms.
- Radiation Hazards:
- Ionizing Radiation: Identifying sources of ionizing radiation, like X-ray machines in healthcare facilities.
- Non-Ionizing Radiation: Recognizing risks from non-ionizing radiation sources like microwaves or ultraviolet lamps.
- Confined Spaces:
- Identifying confined spaces in the workplace and assessing the risks associated with entry, such as oxygen deficiency or toxic gases.
2) The process of hazard identification shall take into account how work is organized, social factors (including workload, work hours, victimization, harassment and bullying), leadership and the culture in the organization
An effective hazard identification process should take into account not only physical and environmental factors but also the organizational and social factors that can impact workplace safety and well-being. Here are some key considerations related to work organization, social factors, leadership, and organizational culture in the context of hazard identification:
- Work Organization:
- Workflow and Processes: Evaluate how work processes are organized. Look for potential hazards related to task sequencing, equipment layout, and the flow of materials and people.
- Workload: Assess whether employees are assigned workloads that are manageable and do not lead to excessive stress or fatigue.
- Work Hours: Consider the impact of shift work, long hours, and irregular schedules on employee fatigue and alertness.
- Task Variety: Assess whether employees have sufficient variety in their tasks to prevent monotony and reduce the risk of repetitive strain injuries.
- Training and Skill Levels: Ensure that employees are adequately trained and possess the necessary skills to perform their tasks safely.
- Social Factors:
- Harassment and Bullying: Create mechanisms for reporting and addressing workplace harassment and bullying, as these can have a significant impact on employee mental health and safety.
- Victimization: Recognize the potential for victimization within the workplace and implement safeguards and support systems.
- Social Support: Encourage a supportive work environment where employees can seek help and assistance from colleagues and supervisors.
- Communication: Promote open and transparent communication channels to address social issues and concerns.
- Leadership and Management:
- Safety Leadership: Emphasize the importance of safety leadership at all levels of the organization. Leaders should set a positive example for safety behaviors.
- Accountability: Hold leaders and managers accountable for ensuring that safety is a priority and that hazards are identified and addressed promptly.
- Decision-Making: Consider how organizational decisions, including those related to budgeting, resource allocation, and production targets, may impact safety.
- Organizational Culture:
- Safety Culture: Foster a safety culture that values and prioritizes safety above all else. This includes encouraging employees to speak up about safety concerns without fear of retaliation.
- Learning from Incidents: Promote a culture of learning from incidents and near misses to prevent their recurrence.
- Continuous Improvement: Encourage continuous improvement in safety practices and hazard identification processes.
- Employee Engagement: Engage employees in safety initiatives and decision-making processes to ensure their voices are heard.
- Feedback Mechanisms:
- Establish mechanisms for employees to provide feedback on work organization, social factors, leadership, and organizational culture issues that may affect safety.
By incorporating these considerations into the hazard identification process, organizations can create a more comprehensive and holistic approach to workplace safety. This approach not only helps identify physical hazards but also addresses the social and organizational factors that can contribute to a safer and healthier work environment.
3) The process of hazard identification shall take into account routine and non-routine activities and situations
A comprehensive hazard identification process should encompass both routine and non-routine activities and situations within the workplace. Here’s why it’s essential to consider both:
- Routine Activities:
- Predictability: Routine activities are the everyday tasks and processes that employees are familiar with and perform regularly. While these activities may seem predictable, they can still pose hazards if not adequately managed.
- Complacency: Employees may become complacent when performing routine tasks, which can lead to lapses in safety procedures or overlook potential hazards.
- Non-Routine Activities:
- Unpredictability: Non-routine activities can be less predictable and may involve tasks or situations that employees encounter less frequently or even for the first time.
- Higher Risk: Non-routine activities often carry a higher risk because employees may not be as experienced or prepared to handle unexpected challenges.
To address both routine and non-routine activities in the hazard identification process:
- Task Analysis: Conduct a thorough analysis of routine tasks to identify any potential hazards, even in seemingly familiar activities. Consider how these tasks might change under different conditions.
- Change Management: Recognize that changes in work processes, equipment, personnel, or procedures can introduce new hazards. Implement a change management process that includes hazard identification as part of any change.
- Emergency Planning: Non-routine situations, such as emergencies or uncommon events, should be addressed in the hazard identification process. Ensure that employees are trained and prepared for these situations.
- Training and Competency: Provide training that prepares employees not only for routine tasks but also for handling non-routine situations. This includes emergency response training and scenario-based training.
- Near-Miss Reporting: Encourage employees to report near misses, even if they involve routine activities. Near misses can provide valuable insights into potential hazards that may not have resulted in an incident but could in the future.
- Scenario Planning: Conduct scenario planning exercises that simulate non-routine situations to identify potential hazards and evaluate the effectiveness of response plans.
- Safety Procedures: Develop and communicate clear safety procedures for both routine and non-routine activities. Ensure that employees understand the importance of following these procedures.
- Emergency Response: Establish protocols and procedures for responding to non-routine situations, such as fires, chemical spills, power outages, or natural disasters.
By considering both routine and non-routine activities and situations in the hazard identification process, organizations can better prepare their employees, reduce the likelihood of incidents, and respond effectively when unexpected challenges arise. This approach contributes to a more comprehensive and resilient safety program.
4) Process should include hazard arising from infrastructure, equipment, materials, substances and the physical conditions of the workplace
A comprehensive hazard identification process should include the identification of hazards arising from infrastructure, equipment, materials, substances, and the physical conditions of the workplace. These are essential components to ensure the safety and well-being of employees. Here’s how to address each of these aspects within the hazard identification process:
- Facility Layout: Assess the layout of the workplace, including the arrangement of buildings, workspaces, and traffic flow, to identify potential hazards related to congested areas, blocked emergency exits, or inadequate access.
- Building Integrity: Inspect the structural integrity of buildings and infrastructure to identify hazards such as deteriorating walls, roofs, or floors that could pose a risk to employees’ safety.
- Machinery and Tools: Regularly inspect and assess machinery and tools for wear and tear, malfunction, or lack of safety features. Identify potential hazards associated with equipment operation, maintenance, and repair.
- Electrical Systems: Check electrical systems, wiring, and components for hazards like exposed wires, overloading, or improper grounding.
- Mechanical Systems: Examine mechanical systems such as HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems for hazards related to ventilation, air quality, and temperature control.
- Fire Safety Equipment: Ensure that fire safety equipment, such as fire extinguishers and sprinkler systems, is in working order and accessible.
- Materials and Substances:
- Chemical Hazards: Identify potential hazards associated with the handling, storage, and disposal of chemicals and hazardous substances. Assess risks related to exposure, spills, leaks, and compatibility.
- Biological Hazards: Consider the presence of biological hazards, such as pathogens, in the workplace, especially in healthcare or laboratory settings.
- Material Handling: Evaluate the methods and equipment used for material handling, including manual handling, to prevent strains, sprains, and other physical injuries.
- Physical Conditions:
- Lighting: Ensure that lighting levels are adequate for the tasks performed in different areas of the workplace to prevent eye strain, accidents, and falls.
- Ventilation: Assess ventilation systems to prevent exposure to harmful fumes, dust, or airborne contaminants.
- Temperature and Humidity: Evaluate the temperature and humidity levels in workspaces to prevent discomfort or heat-related illnesses.
- Noise and Vibration: Identify potential hazards related to excessive noise levels and vibrations, which can lead to hearing damage or ergonomic issues.
- Maintenance and Housekeeping:
- Regularly inspect the workplace for maintenance issues and cleanliness. Poor housekeeping can lead to slips, trips, and falls, as well as the accumulation of combustible materials.
- Safety Signage and Labels:
- Ensure that appropriate safety signs, labels, and warnings are in place to alert employees to potential hazards and guide them on safety procedures.
- Safety Data Sheets (SDS):
- Maintain and provide access to SDS for hazardous materials used in the workplace, as these documents contain critical hazard information.
By systematically assessing and addressing hazards arising from infrastructure, equipment, materials, substances, and physical conditions, organizations can create a safer working environment and reduce the risk of accidents and injuries. Regular inspections, employee training, and a strong safety culture are essential components of this comprehensive hazard identification process.
5) Process should include hazard arising from product and service design, research, development, testing, production, assembly, construction, service delivery, maintenance and disposal
A robust hazard identification process should encompass the entire lifecycle of a product or service, from design and development to production, assembly, construction, service delivery, maintenance, and disposal. Here’s how to incorporate hazard identification into each stage of the lifecycle:
- Product and Service Design:
- During the design phase, identify potential hazards associated with the product or service. Consider factors like materials used, product features, and the intended use of the product or service.
- Use design review processes to systematically assess and mitigate design-related hazards.
- Involve cross-functional teams, including safety experts, in the design process to ensure a comprehensive hazard assessment.
- Research and Development:
- While conducting research and development activities, be aware of potential hazards associated with experiments, prototypes, or new technologies.
- Perform risk assessments for R&D projects to identify and address potential risks.
- Document and communicate safety protocols for R&D activities.
- Testing and Prototyping:
- Identify hazards that may arise during testing and prototyping phases, such as equipment malfunctions, chemical exposures, or mechanical failures.
- Implement safety procedures and protective measures for testing activities.
- Analyze and document test results to identify any unexpected hazards or failures.
- Production and Assembly:
- Assess hazards related to the manufacturing and assembly processes, including machinery, tools, and handling of materials.
- Ensure that safety measures are in place to protect workers from injury during production and assembly.
- Regularly inspect equipment and machinery for potential hazards.
- Identify construction-related hazards, including falls, electrical hazards, confined spaces, and equipment operation.
- Develop and enforce safety plans and protocols for construction projects.
- Conduct pre-construction hazard assessments and ongoing safety inspections.
- Service Delivery:
- Assess hazards that may arise during the delivery of services, such as transportation risks, exposure to chemicals, or client-specific safety concerns.
- Train service providers in safety procedures and client-specific safety requirements.
- Continuously monitor and improve safety practices during service delivery.
- Identify maintenance-related hazards associated with equipment, machinery, or infrastructure.
- Implement preventative maintenance programs to reduce the risk of equipment failures and associated hazards.
- Train maintenance personnel on safe procedures and provide appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).
- Consider the environmental and safety hazards associated with the disposal of products, materials, or waste.
- Implement proper disposal procedures, recycling initiatives, and waste management practices to mitigate hazards.
- Comply with relevant environmental regulations and guidelines during disposal.
Throughout each stage of the product or service lifecycle, it’s essential to maintain clear documentation, training programs, and communication channels to ensure that hazards are consistently identified, evaluated, and managed. Encourage employees to report safety concerns and near misses, and conduct regular reviews to refine hazard identification and mitigation processes. A proactive approach to hazard identification across the entire lifecycle promotes safety and reduces the risk of incidents and accidents.
6) Process should include hazard arising from human factors and how the work is performed
A comprehensive hazard identification process should encompass hazards arising from human factors and how work is performed. Human factors play a significant role in workplace safety, and addressing these factors is crucial for preventing accidents and incidents. Here’s how to include human factors and work performance in the hazard identification process:
- Human Factors Assessment:
- Consider the capabilities, limitations, and behaviors of individuals performing tasks in the workplace. Identify potential human factors hazards, which may include factors like fatigue, stress, distractions, and cognitive errors.
- Use methods like Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) or Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) to assess human factors risks.
- Ergonomic Hazards:
- Identify ergonomic hazards related to workstations, tools, equipment, and tasks. Ergonomic hazards can lead to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and other health issues.
- Conduct ergonomic assessments to determine if workstations are properly designed and whether employees have access to ergonomic equipment.
- Physical Demands:
- Assess the physical demands of tasks and job roles. Heavy lifting, repetitive motions, awkward postures, and other physically demanding tasks can pose risks.
- Implement job rotation or ergonomic adjustments to minimize physical strain.
- Mental and Emotional Stress:
- Recognize the potential for mental and emotional stress in the workplace, which can result from factors such as high workload, job insecurity, harassment, or bullying.
- Create a supportive work environment that encourages employees to report stress-related concerns.
- Training and Competency:
- Evaluate whether employees have the necessary training and competency to perform their tasks safely. Lack of training can lead to errors and accidents.
- Ensure that new employees receive proper onboarding and that ongoing training programs are in place.
- Work Procedures and Practices:
- Examine work procedures and practices to identify deviations or shortcuts that employees may take, which can increase the risk of accidents.
- Encourage adherence to established standard operating procedures (SOPs).
- Communication and Collaboration:
- Assess how well communication and collaboration are managed in the workplace. Poor communication can lead to misunderstandings and safety incidents.
- Foster a culture of open communication, active listening, and teamwork.
- Fatigue Management:
- Recognize the risks associated with employee fatigue due to long working hours, irregular shifts, or inadequate rest breaks.
- Implement fatigue management strategies, such as scheduling adjustments and rest periods.
- Behavior-Based Safety (BBS):
- Use behavior-based safety programs to observe and assess employee behaviors and habits related to safety.
- Provide feedback and coaching to employees to encourage safe behaviors.
- Incident and Near-Miss Analysis:
- Analyze incidents and near misses to identify human factors contributions. Determine if issues like lack of training, fatigue, or stress played a role.
- Employee Involvement:
- Involve employees in hazard identification and risk assessment processes, as they are often the most knowledgeable about the human factors that affect their work.
By addressing hazards arising from human factors and how work is performed, organizations can create a safer work environment, reduce the likelihood of human error-related incidents, and promote the well-being and productivity of their employees. This approach is essential for maintaining a strong safety culture.
7) The process of hazard identification shall take into account past relevant incidents, internal or external to the organization, including emergencies, and their causes
The process of hazard identification should take into account past relevant incidents, whether internal or external to the organization, including emergencies, and their causes. Learning from past incidents is a critical aspect of continuous improvement and proactive hazard identification. Here’s how to incorporate past incidents into the hazard identification process:
- Conduct a thorough review of past incidents, accidents, near misses, and emergencies that have occurred within the organization. Examine incident reports, investigation findings, and relevant documentation.
- Use root cause analysis (RCA) techniques to identify the underlying causes of past incidents. Determine the contributing factors, human errors, equipment failures, and systemic issues that led to the incidents.
- Extract lessons learned from past incidents. Identify specific hazards, risk factors, and vulnerabilities that were exposed by these incidents. Consider how these lessons can inform hazard identification efforts.
- Analyze incident data to identify trends, patterns, and commonalities among incidents. Look for recurring hazards or systemic issues that need attention.
- Consider external incidents and emergencies that may be relevant to your organization’s operations. These could include industry-specific incidents, natural disasters, or events in your geographic region that may impact your operations.
- Evaluate how well the organization’s emergency response plans and procedures performed during past emergencies. Identify any shortcomings or areas for improvement.
- Assess the organization’s culture regarding incident reporting and investigation. Ensure that employees are encouraged to report incidents and near misses without fear of reprisal.
- Maintain a central repository of incident reports, investigation findings, and lessons learned. Share this knowledge across the organization to ensure that everyone is aware of past incidents and their implications.
- Use the information gathered from past incidents to drive continuous improvement in safety processes, procedures, training, and hazard controls.
- Integrate the insights from past incidents into risk assessments and hazard identification processes. Assess whether previously identified hazards have been adequately addressed.
- Use past incidents to inform employee training and awareness programs. Emphasize the importance of recognizing and addressing hazards.
- Enhance emergency preparedness based on the lessons learned from past emergency events. Ensure that response plans are updated to reflect the identified hazards and vulnerabilities.
By incorporating past incidents and their causes into the hazard identification process, organizations can proactively identify and mitigate risks, prevent the recurrence of similar incidents, and continually improve their safety performance. This approach promotes a culture of learning and accountability that contributes to overall workplace safety.
8) The process of hazard identification shall take into account potential emergency situations
The hazard identification process should explicitly consider potential emergency situations. Identifying and preparing for emergencies is a critical aspect of overall workplace safety and risk management. Here’s how to incorporate potential emergency situations into the hazard identification process:
- Begin by conducting an assessment specifically focused on potential emergency situations. Consider various types of emergencies that could occur, such as fires, chemical spills, natural disasters, power outages, medical emergencies, and security incidents.
- Evaluate the risks associated with each potential emergency situation. Assess the likelihood of occurrence and the potential severity of consequences if the emergency were to happen.
- Develop or update emergency response plans for each identified potential emergency. These plans should outline the steps to take in the event of an emergency, including evacuation procedures, communication protocols, and responsibilities.
- Provide training to employees on how to respond to different emergency scenarios. Conduct regular emergency drills to ensure that employees are familiar with the procedures and can respond effectively.
- Ensure that communication and alert systems are in place to notify employees of emergencies promptly. Test these systems regularly to verify their functionality.
- Identify the equipment and supplies needed for emergency response, such as fire extinguishers, first aid kits, emergency lighting, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Ensure their availability and maintenance.
- Identify and mark evacuation routes and assembly points. Make sure employees know how to access these routes and where to gather during evacuations.
- Maintain a list of emergency contacts and authorities, including local emergency services, medical facilities, and key personnel within the organization responsible for emergency response.
- Consider hazards that may be unique to specific types of emergencies, such as the release of hazardous substances during a chemical spill or the risk of structural collapse during a natural disaster.
- Establish a system for issuing emergency notifications and warnings to employees, customers, and the surrounding community, if applicable.
- Collaborate with local emergency response agencies and authorities to ensure that your organization’s emergency plans align with broader community response efforts.
- Regularly review and update emergency response plans based on lessons learned from drills, exercises, and actual emergencies. Incorporate feedback from employees and emergency responders.
- Develop a crisis communication plan that outlines how the organization will communicate with employees, stakeholders, and the media during and after an emergency.
By integrating potential emergency situations into the hazard identification process, organizations can better prepare for unforeseen events, reduce the impact of emergencies, and protect the safety and well-being of employees and the community. This proactive approach is essential for ensuring a swift and effective response to any crisis.
9) The process of hazard identification shall take into account people within the workplace and their activities; vicinity of workplace and worker working at a location not under control of organization
A thorough hazard identification process should take into account not only people within the workplace and their activities but also consider the vicinity of the workplace and workers who may be working at locations not directly under the control of the organization. These aspects are crucial for a comprehensive approach to workplace safety and risk management. Here’s how to address them:
- People Within the Workplace and Their Activities:
- Assess the activities and behaviors of individuals within the workplace. Consider factors such as their tasks, movements, interactions, and behaviors that may contribute to or be affected by hazards.
- Identify potential hazards related to slips, trips, falls, ergonomic strain, workplace violence, stress, and other human factors.
- Encourage employees to report safety concerns, near misses, and unsafe behaviors.
- Vicinity of the Workplace:
- Consider external factors and hazards in the vicinity of the workplace that may impact the safety of employees. This could include traffic hazards, neighboring industrial operations, or environmental risks.
- Implement measures to mitigate risks associated with external factors, such as installing traffic signage, providing protective barriers, or conducting traffic safety training.
- Workers at Remote or External Locations:
- Recognize that some workers may perform tasks or projects at locations that are not directly under the control of the organization, such as remote work sites or client/customer facilities.
- Ensure that workers at external locations receive proper safety training, access to safety equipment, and guidance on reporting hazards and incidents.
- Collaborate with external parties (e.g., clients, contractors) to align safety standards and protocols when workers are on their premises.
- Contractor and Visitor Safety:
- Consider the safety of contractors, subcontractors, and visitors who may enter the workplace. Ensure they are aware of safety protocols and hazards.
- Implement contractor safety management programs and visitor safety procedures to ensure that external individuals follow safety guidelines while on-site.
- Security Considerations:
- Address security-related hazards and risks, particularly if the workplace involves sensitive information or valuable assets. Implement access controls, security protocols, and threat assessments as necessary.
- Emergency Response for External Locations:
- Develop procedures for emergency response and communication with workers at external locations. Ensure they know how to respond to emergencies and whom to contact.
- Travel and Commuting Hazards:
- Consider the safety of employees during their commutes and work-related travel. Address potential hazards associated with transportation, such as road safety and travel-related stress.
- Health Hazards in the Vicinity:
- Assess health hazards in the vicinity of the workplace, such as air quality, environmental pollutants, and infectious disease risks. Implement control measures to protect employees from these hazards.
10 The process of hazard identification should consider the design of work areas, processes, installations, machinery/equipment, operating procedures and work organization, including their adaptation to the needs and capabilities of the workers involved
An effective hazard identification process should consider the design of work areas, processes, installations, machinery/equipment, operating procedures, and work organization, including their adaptation to the needs and capabilities of the workers involved. This approach, often referred to as “design for safety,” aims to proactively address potential hazards at the design and planning stages to create a safer and more ergonomic work environment. Here’s how to incorporate these considerations into the hazard identification process:
- Work Area Design:
- Assess the layout and design of work areas to identify potential hazards related to congestion, inadequate space, poor lighting, and access difficulties.
- Consider ergonomic factors in work area design to minimize physical strain and reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs).
- Process Design:
- Review and evaluate the design of work processes to identify inherent hazards. Consider factors such as workflow, task sequencing, and the use of hazardous materials or substances.
- Look for opportunities to streamline processes, minimize manual handling, and automate tasks where possible to reduce risks.
- Installations and Equipment:
- Examine the design of installations and equipment for potential hazards, including mechanical, electrical, and chemical risks.
- Ensure that equipment is designed with safety features and safeguards to protect workers during operation and maintenance.
- Operating Procedures:
- Assess the adequacy of operating procedures and instructions for tasks and equipment. Ensure that they include safety precautions and guidelines.
- Evaluate whether operating procedures are clear, concise, and accessible to workers.
- Work Organization:
- Consider how work is organized, including shifts, work hours, and task assignments. Address potential hazards related to fatigue, stress, and workload.
- Encourage flexible work arrangements and ergonomic scheduling to accommodate the needs and capabilities of workers.
- Ergonomic Design:
- Integrate ergonomic principles into the design of workstations, tools, and equipment to optimize comfort, efficiency, and safety.
- Address ergonomic hazards related to repetitive motions, awkward postures, and heavy lifting.
- Worker Needs and Capabilities:
- Recognize that workers have different needs and capabilities. Tailor job assignments, training, and equipment to accommodate individual variations.
- Consider factors such as age, physical abilities, and disabilities when designing work processes and accommodations.
- Employee Involvement:
- Involve workers in the design process and encourage them to provide feedback on the ergonomic aspects of their work environment.
- Workers often have valuable insights into potential hazards and improvements that can enhance safety.
- Design Reviews:
- Conduct design reviews and risk assessments during the planning and development phases of projects to identify and mitigate hazards before they become operational.
- Continuous Improvement:
- Foster a culture of continuous improvement in design for safety. Learn from incidents, near misses, and feedback to refine designs and enhance safety.
By considering these design-related factors within the hazard identification process, organizations can reduce the likelihood of accidents, injuries, and health issues caused by poor design or lack of consideration for worker needs and capabilities. This proactive approach to design for safety contributes to a safer and more efficient workplace.
11) The process of hazard identification should consider the situations occurring in the vicinity of the workplace caused by work-related activities under the control of the organization
The hazard identification process should consider situations occurring in the vicinity of the workplace that are caused by work-related activities under the control of the organization. These situations, often referred to as “adjacent area hazards,” can have a significant impact on workplace safety and should be thoroughly assessed. Here’s how to incorporate these considerations into the hazard identification process:
- Conduct a comprehensive assessment of the areas immediately surrounding the workplace. This includes sidewalks, parking lots, access roads, neighboring properties, and public spaces that may be affected by the organization’s activities.
- Identify potential hazards and risks that may arise as a result of work-related activities in adjacent areas. These hazards can include but are not limited to traffic risks, falling objects, noise, dust, chemical emissions, and disruptions to neighboring businesses or residents.
- Develop and implement mitigation measures to control and reduce the identified hazards. This may involve the use of barriers, warning signs, traffic control measures, noise-reduction measures, or dust suppression systems.
- Establish effective communication and coordination with neighboring businesses, property owners, residents, and local authorities. Notify them of upcoming work-related activities that may impact their safety or daily routines.
- If work-related activities affect vehicular or pedestrian traffic in adjacent areas, develop and implement traffic management plans to ensure the safety of workers, visitors, and passersby.
- Consider the safety of the public, especially if the organization’s activities attract crowds or involve public events. Ensure that safety measures are in place to protect spectators or participants.
- Assess the potential environmental impact of work-related activities on adjacent areas. Implement measures to prevent pollution, protect natural resources, and comply with environmental regulations.
- Develop emergency response plans that consider the potential impact of work-related incidents on adjacent areas. Coordinate with local emergency services and first responders.
- Ensure compliance with local regulations and obtain any necessary permits or approvals for work-related activities that may affect the vicinity of the workplace.
- Train employees on the importance of considering adjacent area hazards and the organization’s responsibilities for their mitigation. Encourage them to report any hazards or incidents promptly.
- Establish monitoring and reporting mechanisms to track and document the impact of work-related activities on adjacent areas. Use this information to make necessary adjustments to safety measures.
12) The process of hazard identification should consider the situations not controlled by the organization and occurring in the vicinity of the workplace that can cause injury and ill health to persons in the workplace
The hazard identification process should also consider situations occurring in the vicinity of the workplace that are not controlled by the organization but can potentially cause injury and ill health to persons within the workplace. These external factors can pose significant risks to the safety and well-being of employees and should be taken into account. Here’s how to incorporate these considerations into the hazard identification process:
- Conduct an assessment of external hazards and risks in the vicinity of the workplace that are beyond the organization’s control. This includes factors such as traffic, neighboring properties, public areas, and environmental conditions.
- Identify potential external hazards that can impact the workplace, including but not limited to:
- Traffic hazards, such as vehicle accidents or pedestrian risks.
- Nearby construction or industrial activities that generate noise, dust, or other hazards.
- Environmental hazards like extreme weather conditions, floods, or natural disasters.
- Adjacent properties with hazardous materials or activities that could pose risks.
- Social factors like crime or civil disturbances in the surrounding area.
- Assess the potential consequences and likelihood of external hazards affecting the workplace and causing injury or ill health to employees.
- Prioritize risks based on their severity and potential impact.
- Develop and implement mitigation measures to reduce the impact of external hazards. These measures may include:
- Installing barriers or protective structures.
- Establishing safe pedestrian routes.
- Providing clear signage and warnings.
- Communicating with neighboring organizations and authorities to coordinate safety efforts.
- Developing emergency response plans that consider external hazards.
- Ensure that the workplace has effective emergency response plans in place that consider the potential impact of external hazards. Coordinate with local emergency services as needed.
- Train employees on how to respond to external hazards and emergencies. Provide guidance on evacuation procedures, sheltering in place, and other safety measures.
- Engage with the local community, neighboring businesses, residents, and relevant authorities to build awareness of potential hazards and promote a shared commitment to safety.
- Continuously monitor environmental conditions, especially if they pose risks to the workplace. Stay informed about weather forecasts, air quality, or other relevant factors.
- Periodically review and update the assessment of external hazards and mitigation measures. Ensure that they remain effective and relevant as conditions change.
By considering external hazards not controlled by the organization and their potential impact on the workplace, organizations can take proactive steps to protect the safety and health of employees. Collaboration with external stakeholders, community engagement, and effective communication are key components of addressing these types of hazards.
13) The process of hazard identification should consider the actual or proposed changes in organization, operations, processes, activities and the OH&S management system
When conducting hazard identification as part of an Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) management system, it’s crucial to consider both existing and potential hazards. This includes taking into account any actual or proposed changes in the organization, operations, processes, activities, and the OH&S management system itself. Here’s why this is important:
- Identifying hazards is the first step in the risk assessment process. By considering changes in the organization, processes, or activities, you can assess how these changes may introduce new hazards or alter the severity and likelihood of existing ones.
- Identifying hazards associated with changes allows organizations to proactively implement measures to prevent accidents or incidents. It’s not just about reacting to current hazards but also preventing future ones.
- Many safety regulations and standards require organizations to conduct hazard assessments regularly, especially when changes are made. Failing to consider these changes can lead to non-compliance with legal requirements.
- OH&S management systems are built on the principle of continuous improvement. By monitoring and identifying hazards related to changes, organizations can refine their safety processes and make necessary adjustments.
- Keeping employees safe is a fundamental responsibility of any organization. Considering changes ensures that safety measures are adapted to new circumstances, reducing the risk of accidents and injuries.
- Hazard identification informs resource allocation. It helps organizations allocate resources effectively to address the most critical safety issues, whether they are existing hazards or those introduced by changes.
- Keeping records of hazard identification related to changes is essential for accountability and traceability. It helps in demonstrating that due diligence has been followed and that safety measures have been appropriately implemented.
- Organizations evolve over time. They may introduce new equipment, technologies, processes, or products, which can bring new hazards. Identifying these hazards early allows for the development of appropriate safety measures to adapt to the changing environment.
- Occupational health and safety regulations often require organizations to assess and manage hazards, especially when changes occur. Ignoring changes can lead to non-compliance, which may result in legal consequences and reputational damage.
- Hazard identification is a fundamental part of the continuous improvement process in OH&S management. By considering changes, organizations can refine their safety strategies and ensure that safety measures remain effective.
- Organizations have limited resources. Identifying hazards associated with changes helps prioritize resource allocation. It ensures that resources are allocated to address the most significant risks, thus optimizing safety investments.
- The primary goal of hazard identification is to protect employees and ensure their safety. Changes in the organization or work processes can affect employee safety, making it essential to consider these changes during hazard assessments.
- Recording hazard identification activities related to changes in the organization provides documentation of due diligence. It demonstrates that the organization is actively monitoring and addressing safety concerns, which can be crucial in case of legal disputes or audits.
- Hazard identification is a proactive approach to preventing incidents rather than reacting to them after they occur. By considering changes, organizations can prevent accidents and injuries before they happen.
- OH&S management systems emphasize the importance of considering changes in hazard identification. This integration ensures that safety is a core part of organizational decision-making and planning.
14) The process of hazard identification should changes in knowledge of, and information about, hazards
The process of hazard identification should incorporate changes in knowledge of, and information about, hazards. Here’s why this is crucial:
- Our understanding of hazards can change over time as new research, scientific discoveries, and incident reports emerge. Therefore, it’s essential to continuously update hazard assessments based on the most current and accurate information available.
- New hazards may arise due to technological advancements, changes in materials or processes, or evolving industry practices. Staying up-to-date with emerging hazards is critical to ensure that preventive measures are in place.
- As we learn more about hazards, we may develop more effective mitigation strategies. Incorporating updated knowledge into hazard identification allows organizations to implement better controls and reduce the risk associated with these hazards.
- Health and safety regulations and standards can evolve over time to reflect new knowledge and information about hazards. Compliance with these regulations requires organizations to adapt their hazard identification processes accordingly.
- Hazard identification is a key component of the continuous improvement cycle in occupational health and safety management. Updating hazard assessments based on new knowledge ensures that safety measures are continually refined and optimized.
- Changing knowledge about hazards may alter the risk profile of an organization. By considering these changes, organizations can adjust their risk management strategies and allocate resources more effectively to mitigate the most significant risks.
- Keeping employees informed about updated hazard information is essential for their safety. It helps them understand the risks associated with their work and encourages a culture of safety within the organization.
- Maintaining accurate and up-to-date records of hazard identification, including changes in knowledge and information, is vital for accountability and traceability. This documentation can be critical in legal or regulatory matters.
- New information about hazards may lead to changes in emergency response plans and procedures. Ensuring that hazard identification reflects the latest knowledge helps organizations respond effectively to incidents.
Incorporating changes in knowledge of, and information about, hazards into the hazard identification process is a proactive approach to occupational health and safety. It helps organizations stay ahead of emerging risks, adapt to evolving circumstances, and continually improve their safety measures to protect employees and prevent incidents.
Documented information required
- Hazard Identification Procedure: A documented procedure for identifying hazards within the organization. This procedure should outline the methods and criteria used for hazard identification, such as workplace inspections, incident investigations, and consultation with employees.
- Risk Assessment Procedure: A documented procedure for assessing risks associated with identified hazards. This procedure should describe how risks are evaluated, including the criteria used for determining the severity and likelihood of risks.
- Opportunity Assessment Procedure: If applicable, a documented procedure for assessing opportunities related to occupational health and safety. This procedure should outline how opportunities are identified and evaluated within the organization’s context.
- Risk and Opportunity Register: A document that records all identified hazards, associated risks, and opportunities. This register should include details such as the hazard description, risk assessment results, and proposed control measures.
- Hazard Identification Records: Records of hazard identification activities, including the date, location, description of the hazard, and the individuals or teams responsible for identifying the hazard. These records should demonstrate that hazards are regularly reviewed and assessed.
- Risk Assessment Records: Records of risk assessments conducted for identified hazards. These records should include the severity and likelihood assessments, the calculated risk levels, and any risk treatment decisions made.
- Opportunity Assessment Records: Records of opportunity assessments, if applicable, including the identification of opportunities, their evaluation, and any actions taken to address them.
- Risk Treatment Records: Records of actions taken to control or mitigate risks. This includes documenting the implementation of control measures, monitoring procedures, and the effectiveness of risk treatments.
- Change Management Records: Records of any changes in hazards, risks, or opportunities. This includes records of changes in the organization, operations, processes, activities, and the OH&S management system that could impact hazard identification or risk assessment.
- Records of Consultation and Participation: Records demonstrating the involvement of employees, including their feedback and contributions to hazard identification, risk assessment, and opportunity assessment processes.
- Evidence of Communication: Records of communication within the organization regarding hazards, risks, and opportunities, including communication with relevant stakeholders.
- Records of Management Review: Documentation of the results of management reviews related to hazard identification, risk assessment, and opportunities, including any decisions and actions taken as a result of these reviews.
Example of procedure for Hazard identification and assessment of risks and opportunities
Purpose: This procedure outlines the systematic process for identifying hazards, assessing risks, and evaluating opportunities related to occupational health and safety within [Company Name]. This procedure aims to ensure the effective management of risks and opportunities in accordance with ISO 45001:2018 requirements.
Scope: This procedure applies to all activities, operations, and processes within [Company Name] and involves all employees and relevant stakeholders.
- The Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) Manager is responsible for overseeing the hazard identification, risk assessment, and opportunity assessment processes.
- Department Heads and Team Leaders are responsible for conducting hazard identification and risk assessment within their respective areas of responsibility.
- Employees are responsible for reporting hazards and participating in the assessment process.
- The OH&S Committee is responsible for reviewing and providing input on hazard identification and risk assessment findings.
- Hazard Identification:
- Employees are encouraged to report hazards they observe or encounter during their work.
- Department Heads and Team Leaders regularly conduct workplace inspections and observations to identify hazards.
- The OH&S Manager maintains a Hazard Log to record all identified hazards. The log includes details such as the hazard description, location, date of identification, and responsible personnel.
- Risk Assessment:
- Department Heads and Team Leaders assess the risks associated with identified hazards using the Risk Assessment Matrix .
- Risks are assessed based on criteria including severity, likelihood, and potential consequences.
- The Risk Assessment Matrix provides risk levels (e.g., low, medium, high) and guides the determination of appropriate control measures.
- Risk assessments are documented in the Risk Assessment Register , including the calculated risk level and proposed control measures.
OHS Risk and Opportunity Assessment Matrix
|Risk/Opportunity||Likelihood||Severity||Risk/Opportunity Level||Action Required|
|Example Risk 1||High||Moderate||High||Mitigation|
|Example Risk 2||Low||High||High||Mitigation|
|Example Risk 3||Medium||Medium||Medium||Monitoring|
|Example Opportunity 1||Low||High||High||Exploitation|
|Example Opportunity 2||High||Low||Medium||Exploitation|
|Example Opportunity 3||Medium||Medium||Medium||Monitoring|
Let’s break down each column:
- Risk/Opportunity: This column lists the specific risks and opportunities related to occupational health and safety that you want to assess. Be specific and comprehensive in identifying potential hazards and opportunities.
- Likelihood: This column assesses the likelihood or probability of the risk occurring or the opportunity materializing. You can use terms like “High,” “Medium,” or “Low” to indicate the likelihood.
- Severity: This column assesses the potential consequences or impact of the risk or opportunity. Again, you can use terms like “High,” “Medium,” or “Low” to indicate severity.
- Risk/Opportunity Level: This column combines the likelihood and severity assessments to determine the overall level of risk or opportunity. This can be calculated by multiplying the likelihood by severity or using a predetermined scale (e.g., High, Medium, Low).
- Action Required: This column specifies the action to be taken based on the risk/opportunity level. Common actions include “Mitigation” for high-risk scenarios that need immediate attention and risk reduction, “Monitoring” for medium-level risks or opportunities that require ongoing observation, and “Exploitation” for opportunities that the organization can actively leverage.
3. Opportunity Assessment:
- The OH&S Manager, in consultation with relevant stakeholders, assesses opportunities related to occupational health and safety improvements.
- Opportunities are identified, evaluated, and documented in the Opportunity Assessment Register.
- Appropriate actions are defined and implemented to leverage identified opportunities.
4. Review and Communication:The OH&S Manager conducts regular reviews of the Hazard Log, Risk Assessment Register, and Opportunity Assessment Register.Findings and actions related to hazards, risks, and opportunities are communicated to employees and relevant stakeholders through appropriate channels.
5. Monitoring and Improvement:Control measures are monitored for effectiveness in reducing or mitigating risks.The OH&S Manager conducts periodic reviews and updates of the Hazard Log, Risk Assessment Register, and Opportunity Assessment Register.
6. Documentation: All hazard identification, risk assessment, and opportunity assessment records are maintained as per the document retention and control procedures outlined in [Company Name]’s Document Management System.
Hazard Identification and Assessment of Risks and Opportunities Register
Creating a Hazard Identification and Assessment of Risks and Opportunities Register is an essential part of an occupational health and safety management system. This register helps track and manage hazards, associated risks, and opportunities within your organization. Here’s an example of what this register might look like:
|ID||Hazard/Opportunity Description||Location||Date Identified||Identified by||Risk Level (if applicable)||Control Measures (if applicable)||Opportunity (if applicable)||Actions Taken||Status|
|001||Slippery floor in the warehouse||Warehouse||2023-01-15||Employee A||High – Slippery when wet||1. Place “Caution: Wet Floor” signs. 2. Regularly clean and dry the area.||N/A||Implemented||Closed|
|002||Outdated fire extinguisher||Office||2023-02-10||Safety Officer||Medium – May not function properly in case of fire||1. Replace with a new fire extinguisher.||N/A||Implemented||Closed|
|003||Introduction of new machinery||Production||2023-03-05||Engineer B||N/A||1. Conduct training for operators. 2. Develop standard operating procedures.||N/A||In Progress||Open|
|004||Ergonomic workstation improvement||Office||2023-04-20||Employee C||N/A||N/A||Opportunity for improved ergonomics and employee comfort.||Ongoing||Open|
|005||Hazardous chemical storage||Chemical Storage||2023-05-15||Safety Officer||High – Potential chemical exposure||1. Relocate hazardous chemicals to a designated storage area. 2. Implement chemical labeling and safety data sheet management.||N/A||Implemented||Closed|
|006||Emergency exit blocked by equipment||Factory||2023-06-10||Safety Committee||High – Hinders evacuation in emergencies||1. Relocate equipment to clear emergency exit route. 2. Conduct regular checks to ensure unobstructed exits.||N/A||In Progress||Open|
- Risk Level: Assess the risk level based on the severity and likelihood of an incident (e.g., High, Medium, Low).
- Control Measures: Document the measures or actions taken to control or mitigate identified risks.
- Opportunity: If an opportunity is identified, describe how it can benefit the organization.
- Actions Taken: Record actions or steps taken to address the hazard, risk, or opportunity.
- Status: Indicate whether the action is “Implemented,” “In Progress,” or “Closed” to track the resolution status.
This register provides a clear overview of hazards, associated risks, and opportunities, along with their status. Regularly updating and reviewing this register is essential for effective hazard management and continuous improvement in your occupational health and safety management system.